4. DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC ADVANCES TO MANAGE THE EQUINE ENDOMETRITIS by S. M. KALASWA, H. C. NAKHASHI, B. N. SUTHAR, H. K. THUMAR, M. R. PATEL, T.V. SUTARIA AND V.L. SOLANKI
Endometritis is failure of the uterus to clear foreign contaminants (i.e., bacteria, spermatozoa) resulting in inflammation of the inner lining of the uterus (endometrium). This is an important cause of reduced fertility and infertility in mares, and therefore is a major contributor to economic loss in the industry. Most cases of endometritis are the result of bacterial infections involving such bacteria as Streptococcus zooepidemicus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and less commonly Taylorella equigenitalis (which causes contagious equine metritis or CEM). Yeast and fungi (Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp., for example) can also infect the uterus. The normal mare uterus is protected from external contamination by the vulva, vestibule, vagina, and cervix, which function as physical barriers that block the passage of foreign material(s). Injury, anatomic abnormalities, or loss of structural function (e.g., post-foaling) can permit the introduction of microorganisms into the uterus, resulting in endometritis. In severe or persistent cases, a chronic endometritis can develop accompanied by degenerative changes of the endometrium, including fibrosis (scarring). This condition is usually noted in older, multiparus mares (those which have foaled more than twice). Semen also incites an inflammatory reaction in the uterus post-breeding. Almost all mares develop a transient, post-breeding endometritis regardless of breeding technique (natural or artificial insemination). Mares with persistent post-breeding Endometritis (PPBEM) have an increased rate of embryonic loss and a lower overall pregnancy rate than those without the condition. To enhance conception rates, mares at high risk need optimal breeding management as well as early Adavnces diagnosis, followed by the most appropriate Adavnces treatment and Mangement.
KEYWORDS: Equine, Endometritis, Ultrasonography, Uterine cytology, Uterine biopsy, Antibiotics Antifungal agents, Mechanical curettage, Chemical curettage, Uterine lavage, Immunomodulators, Bacteriology, Cytology, Buffered chelators, Mucolytics, Corticosteroids, Plasma therapy, Acupuncture therapy. Herbal therapy.