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A wide knowledge gap in invasion biology exists especially in developing nations like India. This knowledge is vital for scientific and systematic management of biodiversity and environment of a region. The present author, therefore, draw attention to the exotic sedges, a much neglected group of plants, as occurring in the state of Maharashtra. A total of 25 exotic species belong to nine genera of the family Cyperaceae. Maximum exotic species pertain to genera <em>viz.</em>, <em>Cyperus</em> (07), <em>Fimbristylis</em> (05), and <em>Eleocharis</em> (04). This is the first exclusive report on exotic sedges in the state of Maharashtra. A dire necessary is pointed out to have inventory nation-wide for this much overlooked group of plants as they also invade in agricultural lands and are responsible for economic loss.</p> D.A.‎ PATIL Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-01 2022-11-01 153 15 21 EXOTIC GRASSES IN MAHARASHTRA STATE (INDIA): A CENSUS AND IMPLICATIONS <p>Exotic species are both ecologically and economically a growing problem worldwide. This communication is an attempt to prepare an up-to-date account of exotic grass flora of the state of Maharashtra (India). Total 74 grass species belonging to 43 genera of the family Poaceae have been investigated, of which 19 species are found under cultivation, while others run wild. The continents which share maximum exotic grasses are <em>viz</em>., Africa (29 species), America (25) species and Asia (Excl. India) (15 species). Interestingly, some ancestors of food grain crop species of modern period occur in this region. These are desired to utilise in crop improvement programme. Also, <em>Eragrostis tef</em> (Zuc.) Trotter, which is thought as a source of superfood grains can be brought under cultivation. Apart from nativity of exotic grass species, their ecological and economic impacts are discussed in brief. This is the first exclusive inventory of exotic grasses for the state of Maharashtra. Studies on invasion of exotic grasses in Indian agricultural land and need of the hour. Studies on invasion of exotic grasses in Indian agricultural land are need of the hour.</p> D.A.‎ PATIL Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-01 2022-11-01 153 1 14 ASSESSMENT OF FERTILITY STATUS OF SOIL OF GANDHINAGAR ?DISTRICT, GUJARAT, INDIA <p>Gandhinagar is the capital city of Gujarat State. The paper deals with the estimation of nutrients in soil of different talukas of Gandhinagar district. This district has four talukas with 290 villages and 10 urban habitations in the district. For the study purpose, the entire district was divided into 05 sites. One site of each taluka was selected. Total 05 sampling sites were selected to collect samples. Soil samples were collected and analysed for their physico-chemical properties like pH, EC, % Organic Carbon, Chloride (Cl), Nitrogen (N), Total Alkalinity, Calcium and Magnesium. pH showed alkaline soil. Parameters analysed in the soil of Gandhinagar district and they were recorded as per the standard, it became evident that, the soil of Gandhinagar district is fertile and suitable for the study purpose.</p> DR. BINNY H. KARLIKAR HEENA M. ARYA2, ‎ KANSARA KRUNAL3, NAVINKUMAR D. SUTHAR4, MANISHA SANGADA5, ‎MAYURI N. DAMOR6 , POOJA G. PRAJAPATI 7 AND ANIL H. CHAUDHARY8.‎ Copyright (c) 2022 2022-10-01 2022-10-01 153 1 4 ETHNO BOTANICAL STUDY OF STROBILANTHES CALLOSA NEES.? by M. B. BARAIYA1 AND N. K. PATEL2? <p>Many kinds of plants grow in the forest and completed their life cycle. Most of these plants are used by people in some way or another. For example, human lifespan have been use plants since that time immemorial as a medicine, to make medicine, as food, in industrial units, for animals as animal fodder, as fuel, as a commodity, etc.</p> <p>One such plant, known as Karvi (<em>Strobilanthes callosa</em> Nees) is found growing in the forests of Passim Ghat and South Gujarat. Which is included in the secondary forest products under the forest products Act. The local’s people use this plant for their habitat, building a wall to make cattle pens, mangers, roofs etc. and use its roots as medicine.</p> <p>These plants play an imported role in the environment, and provide habitat for many birds, insects, and bees. Gradually this karava / Karvi are declining in the forest, which needs special protection.</p> M. B. BARAIYA1 Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 153 18 23 AQUATIC, SEMI-AQUATIC AND MARSHLAND PLANTS AND ITS ASSOCIATION OF BANASRIVER, PALANPUR TALUKA, BANASKANTHA <p>Aquatic diversity and its role in understanding the wetland ecosystem dynamic have tremendous significance. The paper elaborates the habitat diversity of Banas river of Palanpur taluka, Banaskantha. During the study period total of 69 species of aquatic habitat belonging to 62 genera under the 42 families were recorded, where 63 species represented Angiosperms, 2 species represented Pteridophytes and 4 species represented as Algae at four different site. Vegetation associations were also recorded in various sites.</p> P. J. DABGAR ‎ ‎B. A. KUMBHAR Copyright (c) 2022 2022-09-09 2022-09-09 153 1 7 A Review on Emerging Pollutants Status and Nutraceutical Properties of Seaweeds from Marine Ecosystems <p><em>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), plastic polymers, and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are examples of ocean garbage. These compounds have a long half-life, bioaccumulate in the environment, harm marine flora and wildlife, and, as a result, have a negative impact on human health. Seaweeds are currently attracting a lot of attention from scientists due to the bioactive chemicals they produce. A variety of seaweed products have unique nutraceutical, pharmacological, and biological qualities.&nbsp;Polysaccharides are the most commonly utilised compounds, with applications in a variety of industries and more advanced therapeutic applications. In addition, anthropogenic activities polluting the marine environment from the surface to the deepest sediment has become more concerning in the last 70 years. As a result, the current analysis focuses on the state of organic pollutants in the marine environment, their consequences, and the numerous substances found in seaweed, as well as their applications and Nutraceutical properties.</em></p> Nirali Goswami Nirmal Kumar J.I Rita N. kumar Riya Shah Copyright (c) 2022 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2022-08-01 2022-08-01 153 1 29 FLORAL DIVERSITY AND ASSOCIATED ETHNOBOTANICAL WISDOM OF MOUNTAIN COMMUNITIES LIVING AROUND SHIKARI DEVI WILDLIFE SANCTUARY, DISTRICT MANDI, HIMACHAL PRADESH <p>A study was undertaken in the Shikari Devi Wildlife Sanctuary located in Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh to document the floral diversity and Ethnobotanical wisdom of people living in the vicinity of the sanctuary. Out of 98 documented plants, seventeen were trees, seventeen were shrubs, sixty were herbs, and two were climbers, two species of pteridophytes. All documented plants have medicinal use. Thirteen plants are used for meeting the fuelwood requirement and 38 plants are used as fodder. 39 plants are used are edible and four plants are used in religious ceremonies. Out of 98 plants, 34 plants have multipurpose uses. The family Rosaceae had maximum 16 species.</p> RITA DEVI 1‎ PANKAJ GUPTA2*‎ Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 153 32 58 A REVIEW ON SYNTHESIS OF NANOPARTICLES AND THEIR APPLICATION ?IN DYE DEGRADATION”? <p>In recent studies, nanomaterials and nanotechnologies have acquired a lot of attention. With the advancement of nanoscience, new physical properties and methods in sample preparation and device fabrication emerged. This research work carried out by physicists, chemists, material scientists, and mechanical and electrical engineers from several domains. The developments of nanomaterials are equivalent to quantum confined atoms which is a significant step forward in the quest for quantum confinement. Materials scientists and engineers have made considerable advances in the development of nanomaterial solids synthesis technologies. This review includes various methods of preparing nanomaterials including ball milling, chemical vapor deposition, pulse-laser method, as precipitation, co-precipitation method, mixture methods, solvothermal, and sol-gel processing, water-oil microemulsions method, hydrothermal and biological synthesis and applications of nanomaterial in dye degradation from industrial wastewaters</p> Riya Shah Nirmal Kumar J.I Nirali Goswami Rita kumar Copyright (c) 2022 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2022-07-06 2022-07-06 153 11 34 REVIEW ON INTERPLAY BETWEEN HYDRO-GEOCHEMISTRY, ?PLANKTON DYNAMICS AND AVIFAUNAL ASSEMBLAGE OF TWO ?SIGNIFICANT FRESHWATER INLAND WETLANDS OF NATIONAL ?IMPORTANCE, GUJARAT, INDIA <p>Limnology is the study of freshwaters. Such limnological studies are helpful in understanding interaction between climate, environmental conditions, and biological processes in the water. Water is vital entity for the existence of all life-forms on the earth, but this precious resource is continuously being threatened by increasing human population as the purpose of the usage of water has been increased such as water abstraction for domestic use, agricultural production, mining, industrial production, power generation and forestry practices. Wetlands being one of the most productive ecosystems in the biosphere, the high microbial and macrophyte productivity occurs at a high rate, which can be attributed partly to an adequate water supply, high organic loading, high sediment nutrients, and organic matter concentrations. Plankton are the microscopic organisms, drifts in the upper photic zone of the oceans, and freshwater water bodies that are unable to swim against a current. Plankton play vital role in the function of any aquatic ecosystem that is energy flow and material flow. Because of their high density, drifting nature, high group or species diversity, and varying stress tolerance, plankton populations are an essential link in the energy transition from producers to consumers. Birds are an excellent taxon to study in order to track global environmental change. Birds are found all over the world, inextricably linked to their environments, sensitive to environmental changes, and their presence might indicate ecosystem function.</p> HIREN J. CHAUDHARI HIREN B. SONI Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-08 2022-06-08 153 14 36 CENSUS OF AGROBIODIVERSITY IN TRIBAL TEHSIL IN KHANDESH REGION (MAHARASHTRA:INDIA ) <p><strong> Introduction:</strong> Khandesh is a part of the erstwhile region of Bombay Presidency and the present state of Maharashtra (India). It is an upland basin of Tapi Valley and one of the most northerly section of the Deccan plateau. It extents between 20°8' and 22°7' north latitude and 73°42' and 76°28' east longitude (Anonymous, 1880). It is bordered in the North-West by the state of Madya Pradesh and Gujarat and on East and South by Buldhana district of Vidarbha region, Aurangabad district of Marathwada region and Nasik district of Maharashtra. Khandesh has predominantly Hindu population. The other people belong to the religions <em>viz</em>., Mohamedon (Muslim), Buddha, Christen, etc. This region of Maharashtra state is predominantly agrarian and also rear domestic animals for the purposes of agriculture, milk and flesh. Agriculture is although a mainstay of livelihood, some communities, especially tribals, partially depend upon bioresources from wild vegetation in the hilly parts of Khandesh.</p> Shekhar Khairnar KhairnarS.B., Patil M.V. and D.A. Patil Copyright (c) 2022 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2022-07-06 2022-07-06 153 1 10 THE STUDY OF PLANT DIVERSITY IN KALESHWARI FOREST MAHISAGAR DISTRICT, GUJARAT, INDIA <p>Plant diversity is one of the greatest gift for god for every person and every earth things. This Floristic studies can provides a clear understanding of the processes and conditions ecology and development in plant growth. While, it is commonly accepted today that the conservation of all biodiversity should be the goal, understanding the natural distribution of plants (floristic studies) is central to managing the ecosystem for the conservation of biodiversity and long-term sustainability. In present study, a total of 304 plant species belonging to 68 families and 211 genera have been recorded from Kaleshwari forest in Khanpur Taluka of Mahisagar District. This study will play an important role in proper knowledge of plant diversity, conservation and planning for sustainable use of available sources.</p> KUNJANA NARENDRAKUMAR PATEL Copyright (c) 2022 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2022-06-08 2022-06-08 153 1 13 A Review on Some Selected Physicochemical Parameters of Soil from Gujarat, India <p>Soil is the uppermost layer of the surface of the earth and is mainly a combination of organic materials, mineral particles, water, air, and different types of living microorganisms. It assists in the growth of plants by providing them with varied nutrients and water. Physicochemical parameters of soil are an indication of its fertility. They provide information about soil’s nutrient content and help in describing the characteristics of the soil. The various physicochemical parameters include micronutrients available, PH, bulk density, moisture content, etc. This review provides an insight into the three physicochemical properties of soil is PH, moisture content, and bulk density which affect the soil composition and quality of soil.</p> Krutin Patel Mohak Bhatnagar Richa Dodia Purva Patel Narendrasinh Thakor Sanskruti Bhatt Copyright (c) 2022 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2022-05-04 2022-05-04 153 EFFECT OF DIFFERENT ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS G. DON., A MEDICINAL PLANT <p>An experiment was undertaken to study the selected medicinal plant and their therapeutic value with the association of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Rhizospheric soil samples were collected from the local places of Dharwad, which is geographically located between 14º15' and 15º50' North longitudes and 74º48' and 76º20' east latitude of north-western part of Karnataka state, India. The present investigation was under taken to evaluate the efficacy of four different indigenous AM fungi (<em>G.fasciculatum,G.mosseae G.macrocarpum</em> and <em>G.aggregatum</em>) on plant growth, biomass production, per cent colonization, spore number and "P" uptake in <em>Catharanthus roseus</em> medicinal plant. Thus the present study clearly brought out medicinal plant could be conserve by inoculated efficient arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to establish healthy seedling stock at nursery level?.</p> HOSAMANI, P.A.‎ Copyright (c) 2022 2022-03-01 2022-03-01 153 1 8 REDISCOVERY OF WHITE-BORDERED COPPER, LYCAENA PANAVA (WESTWOOD, 1852) (LEPIDOPTERA: LYCAENIDAE) FROM UNION TERRITORY OF JAMMU AND KASHMIR, INDIA <p><em>Lycaena panava</em> (Westwood, 1852) is rediscovered from Bani area of Jammu and Kashmir, India after 147 years?.</p> TASLIMA SHEIKH1* SANJEEV GUPTA2‎ Copyright (c) 2022 2022-02-04 2022-02-04 153 1 5 Arius gagora Hamilton, 1822 (Siluriformes: Ariidae): Range extension and new addition to the fish fauna of Tripura, North East India <p><em>Arius gagora</em> Hamilton, 1822 <strong>(</strong>Siluriformes: Ariidae) a new addition to the fish checklist of Tripura, north eastern state of India. This fish species is first sighted on 28 May, 2019 in Kailashahar, Unakoti district of Tripura.</p> Dipak Das Copyright (c) 2022 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2022-04-01 2022-04-01 153 DIVERSITY OF MYCORRHIZAL SPORE POPULATION DYNAMICS AND QUANTIFICATION IN RHIZOSPHERIC SOIL OF TECTONA GRANDIS L. <p>Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are known to be well distributed and these fungi can be isolated from a wide variety of natural habitats and are particularly abundant in cultivated lands. Little work has been carried out regarding their distribution in Teak located in Dharwad district of Karnataka, India. A total of Thirty six arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal spores were identified and the genera observed in the recovered spores are-<em>Glomus, Acaulospora, Sclerocystis, Gigaspora, Scutellispora and Entrophospora</em>. The highest AM fungal spore population was observed in Mavinakoppa and lowest in Holthikoti. Similarly, the highest AM fungal per cent root colonization in Mavinakoppa and lowest in Holthikoti. <em>Glomus</em> species is most predominant among the recorded AM fungal spores from rhizospheric soil of <em>Tectona grandis</em>?.</p> HOSAMANI P. A.‎ Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-01 2022-01-01 153 1 12 MANAGEMENT OF UNILATERAL BARTHOLIN’S GLAND CYST IN HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN COW- STUDY OF TWO CASES <p>Two cases of Holstein Friesian crossbred cows were brought to the Veterinary Clinical Complex, College of Veterinary and Animal Science, Bikaner with the history of repeat breeding. Vaginal examination showed a unilateral Bartholin’s gland cyst on the left side of the vagina. The cyst was punctured, drained, and poured with antibiotic solution. The cows showed an uneventful recovery without showing reoccurrence.</p> Dr Pramod Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 153 1 6 ADDITION OF CHESTNUT ANGLE ODONTOPTILUM ANGULATUM (C. FELDER, 1862) TO THE BUTTERFLY FAUNA OF UNION TERRITORY OF JAMMU AND KASHMIR, INDIA <p><em>Odontoptilum angulatum</em> (C. Felder, 1862) Chestnut Angle a new addition to the butterfly checklist of Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir, India. This butterfly species is sighted on 01, September, 2021 in Sunjwan area of Jammu district. On the observation of this butterfly in Jammu district, now Jammu and Kashmir has now total 310 species of butterflies.</p> TASLIMA SHEIKH Copyright (c) 2021 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 153 7 11 STUDIES ON DIRECT AND INDIRECT EFFECT ON MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS OF LANNEA COROMANDELICA CLONES AT NURSERY EVALUATION <p>The present study was conducted with 30 clones of <em>Lannea coromandelica </em>at the Forest College and Research Institute, Mettupalayam. Path analysis is a special use of multiple regressions to help understand and parcel out the sources of variation. In the morphometric traits, the overall correlation observed between two variables will be a function of series of direct and indirect relationships between different variables. Path analysis was shows the direct and indirect effects of characters namely, shoot length, root length, collar diameter, biomass production, root shoot ratio, sturdiness quotient, and quality index on volume index. Root length, collar diameter, biomass production and sturdiness quotient are showed positive direct effect on volume index. Among these traits, biomass production registered the maximum indirect effect on shoot length. Biomass production also registered high values for broad-sense heritability, genetic gain and genotypic coefficient of variation and thus, emerged as an important parameter for selecting superior genotypes.</p> Prabakaran Palanisamy Copyright (c) 2021 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 153 1 6 3. DYSTOCIA DUE TO FETAL ASCITES IN MURRAH BUFFALO-A CASE ?REPORT by RAVI DUTT1, VINAY YADAV2, SUJATA3, USHA YADAV3 AND SANDEEP KUMAR1? <p>The present case study puts on record a case of dystocia due to fetal ascites in a Murrah buffalo which was relieved by incising the fetal abdominal wall and subsequent obstetrical maneuvers.</p> RAVI DUTT1‎ Copyright (c) 2021 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 153 16 19 2. STUDIES ON ETHNO-BOTANICAL PLANTS USED BY BANJARA ?TRIBAL COMMUNITY OF PARBHANI DISTRICT MAHARASHTRA, ?INDIA by RADHESHYAM T. CHAVAN, ANAND ANNA WAGHMARE AND ??SACHIN S. CHOUDHARI <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The Ethnomedicinal survey on medicinal plants and their traditional uses was carried out in Jintur Dist. Parbhani in Maharashtra. These areas are floristically rich area, in this area different species are growing in their natural habitat. The Banjara community of these regions uses some of the plants as medicine for the treatment of human ailments. In this area 100 ethno medicinal plants species belonging to 50 families were recorded from Jintur Dist. Parbhani. These plants are arrange accordingly alphabetically, local names and family and parts used as medicine.</p> RADHESHYAM CHAVAN Copyright (c) 2021 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 153 8 15 1. PREDATORY ACTIVITY OF SPIDERS ON SOME AGRICULTURE PESTS by PRASHANTHAKUMARA S. M1. AND ? M. VENKATESHWARLU2? <p>Spiders play an important role as generalist predators of many insect groups in agricultural ecosystems. In the present study five different spider species like <em>Argiope pulchella, Hippasa agelenoides, Plexippus peteresi, Oxiopus biraminicus and Paradosa pseudoannulata </em>are collected from agriculture ecosystems in the study area of Western Ghats &nbsp;along with common pests like <em>Deudorix Isocrates</em> (Anar butterfly),<em> Ferrisia virgata </em>(Mealy bug) and <em>Virachola Isocrates </em>(Friut borer) in the same fields. Spiders were maintained in plastic tubs and fed by the insect pests, the killed pests and consumed by spider was counted at the end of 24 hours. The predatory activity of <em>A. pulcella</em> was very high (3.98±0.23), followed by <em>H. agelenoides</em> (3.49±0.46), <em>O. biraminicus </em>(2.07±0.38), <em>P. peteresi</em> (2.06±0.34) and very low in <em>P. Pseudoannulata</em> (1.73±0.23). More number of pests were controlled during the multople species (54%) than single pest species (47%) and web builders (58%) controlled more pests than the hunters (42%).</p> PRASHANTHA KUMARA SM VENKATESHWARLU M Copyright (c) 2021 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 153 1 7 RARE, ENDANGERED, THREATENED AND ENDEMIC (RET & ?E) PLANT SPECIES IN TRADITIONAL KHAMPTI HOMESTEADS OF ?NAMSAI DISTRICT, ARUNACHAL PRADESH <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT:</em></strong></p> <p>A survey of rare, endangered, threatened and endemic plant species present in the homesteads of ??15 Khampti community villages of Namsai district was done during 2019-2020.The objective of the ?study was to know the extent of conservation of RET &amp; E species in the traditional Khampti ?homesteads and to evaluate the traditional uses of those species for why those species were being ?sheltered in their homesteads. The study documented 48 threatened plant species from their ?homestead gardens belongs to 35 plant families. Most importantly, among them 4 species were ?critically endangered, 6 were endangered, 1 data deficient, 1 rare and another 1 plant species was ?extinct in wild. Apart from that 18 plant species were near to threatened and 12 plant species were ?vulnerable. Of these plant species 39 were utilized for traditional medicine and other 9 were ?edible, timber or fuel wood species. As such home gardens of Khampti community have been ?playing a vital role by sheltering and by virtue conservation RET &amp; E species?.</p> P. Hazarika Clerisaa Handique Protul Hazarika Copyright (c) 2021 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2021-09-01 2021-09-01 153 1 12 SOURCES OF SCIENTIFIC NAMES IN INDIGENOUS PLANT TAXA OF INDIA <p>Nomenclature is the fundamental function of taxonomy and a vehicle too which carries with it various faith, culture, languages, geographical features, utilisable items and various human sentiments.&nbsp; At the same, it avoids chaotic situation in human life in its absence.&nbsp; The present authors analysed etymologically 31 generic and 60 specific epithets particularly pertaining to indigenous taxa of India.&nbsp; The root-words informed bases of coining names such as local plant names, plant product, geographical localities and features, resemblance between plants, names of state and country (India), mythological and religious elements, etc.&nbsp; There are many commonalities between the bases of generic and specific names, only there are some differences in frequency of using them. The present authors appealed to learners of plant science to be eagerous about meanings of scientific names to render the subject of taxonomy easier and interesting.</p> PATIL, D. A.1 AND KHAIRNAR, S. B.1‎ Copyright (c) 2021 2021-08-01 2021-08-01 153 1 12 ADDITION OF ASOTA TORTUOSA MOORE, 1872 – (LEPIDOPTERA; ?EREBIDAE) TO THE MOTH FAUNA OF UNION TERRITORY OF ?JAMMU AND KASHMIR, INDIA <p><em>Asota tortuosa</em> a moth of Erebidae family has been reported for the first from the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir, India.</p> TASLIMA SHEIKH Aejaz H Parrey Copyright (c) 2021 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2021-09-01 2021-09-01 153 13 17 A REVIEW ON SALICORNIA BRACHIATA (ROXB.) AS A POTENTIAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENT <p><em>Salicornia brachiata </em>Roxb. is a member of the Amaranthaceae family, and is an extreme halophyte that is&nbsp;a potential marine agricultural alternative crop. Due to its potential as a naturally adapted higher plant model for abiotic stress-responsive gene resources, this halophyte is a promising alternative with a variety of uses.&nbsp;<em>S.brachiata</em> is a promising candidate with a wide range of nutritional qualities and uses. Oligosaccharides were discovered after analyzing a wide spectrum of carbohydrates and carbohydrate-containing substances. The oil content was Analysed using GC-MS. Proteome profiling study was carried out using MALDI TOF-TOF MS in protein rich seeds of <em>S.brachiata</em>. Sulphur-rich proteins with special oligosaccharides were found in <em>S. brachiata</em>, and the strategy for enhancing the nutritional quality of seed proteins has the potential to be applied on a larger scale, but further research and knowledge are required. All of the extraction and identification were then matched to a commonly utilized nutrition source. All of the extraction and identification were then matched to a commonly utilized nutrition source.</p> DHRUVISHA S. MEHTA HITESH A. SOLANKI Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 153 10 17 FLORISTIC DIVERSITY STUDY OF DHANSURA TALUKA, DISTRICT ARAVALLI, GUJARAT, INDIA <p><em>During research work, total 591 species of angiosperm plants belonging to 390 genera under 107 families were reported from Dhansura Taluka. Relating to the habit of the plants out of the 591 species.111 were tree species,82 belonged to shrubs and 309 are herbs.</em></p> ARATI BHAGAT, KHYATI PATEL AND M.S.JANGID Copyright (c) 2021 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2021-08-01 2021-08-01 153 13 20 REVIEW: ROLE OF SOME LOCAL COMMUNITIES IN PROTECTION OF FLORA AND FAUNA <p><strong><em>Abstract</em></strong><strong>: </strong>Protection of flora and fauna is of major concern these days. With decreasing natural forest spaces which is actually “home” for them increases the risk for their existence. It is well known that many of the local communities plays important role in the protection and conservation of natural resources including flora and fauna. In many parts of world, they act as main conservators. Nowadays government officials also take help of these communities for protection and give special space to them in their programs. India has many of these communities, approximately 227 ethnic groups and more than 500 tribal communities like <em>bishnois, mundas </em>and many others. This review tries to highlight and summarize their precious role in conservation of plants and animals.</p> ABHISHEK KANOJIA Copyright (c) 2021 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2021-08-01 2021-08-01 153 21 35 STUDY OF ORTHOPTERA FROM TARANGA HILLS, GUJARAT, INDIA <p>Present study explored the Bio-diversity of Orthopteran fauna from Taranga hills from 2016 to 2018 using hand picking collection and light trap method. A total of 281 individuals, 23 species under 19 genera belonging to 13 subfamily and six families of Orthopterans have been recorded. Family Acrididae was a numerically dominant family. Family Gryllotalpidae, Gryllidae, Tetrigidae were numerically less dominant families.</p> DR. B. M. PARMAR Copyright (c) 2021 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 153 6 9 ENLIST OF SUCCULENT PLANTS FROM SHEGAON, TAHSIL, BULDANA DISTRICT. (MS), INDIA <p>The present article covers a revision survey of succulent plants from the Shegaon tahsil of Buldana District. Survey completed by visiting various sites collected the plants, observed and identified by available literature and standard floras in the research lab. Chiefly 6 species 4 genera and 5 families were poised along with their Botanical name, local name, Habitat, taxonomical description, and phenology.</p> JADHAO AJAY. B DEORE ASHOK. N Copyright (c) 2021 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 153 1 5 OBSERVATION OF MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN VIGNA RADIATA USING DRINKING WATER OF DIFFERENT SUBDIVISION OF PATAN DISTRICT <p>Water quality is inherently linked with human health, poverty reduction, gender equality, food security, livelihoods, and the preservation of ecosystems, as well as the economic growth and social development of our societies<sup> [1]</sup>. Legumes are next to the cereals in terms of their financial and dietary significances as human meal resources<sup> [2]</sup>. There is nine sub-division of the Patan District (Patan, Chanasma, Harij, Sami, Sarasvati, Shankheswar, Siddhpur, Radhanpur and Shantalpur). In this research work, we determine how to impact the different drinking water on the plants. Mostly groundwater has high TDS so uptake of nutrients from soil create problem and thus plant can't develop very well. In some sources, plants grow well as branches of Narmada and other sources have law TDS comparison to others and pH around 7.</p> NENSI PATEL KALPA OZA PROF. DR. BHARAT MAITREYA Copyright (c) 2021 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2021-04-01 2021-04-01 153 A A REVIEW OF DRUG - INDUCED DIABETES <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>Drug-induced diabetes is outlined because of the new development of a hyperglycaemic state that meets the definition of diabetes which is thanks to the consumption of a drug. This medication area unit classified in step with the mechanism by that they induce diabetes. The primary cluster interferes with insulin resistance and insulin deficiency, the second interferes with insulin deficiency, the third cluster interferes with insulin resistance, the fourth cluster interferes with medication that destroys beta cells</p> RICHA DODIA SUSMITA SAHOO Copyright (c) 2021 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 153 1 8 A REVIEW OF SOME ANTIDIABETIC PLANTS <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>Diabetes mellitus may be a condition outlined through determinedly high levels of sugar (glucose) within the blood. There are varied kinds of diabetes. Diabetes may be a reasonable disease that has reached epidemic proportions in several parts of the world. Numerous plants are useful for potent antidiabetic drugs. In developing nations, medicinal plants are accustomed to cure polygenic diseases to beat the burden of the value of typical medicines to the population. Simple accessibility, raw consumption, the smallest amount aspect effects, and low price makes flavouring preparations for all obtainable therapies. This review represents diabetes mellitus and also the role of plants for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> RICHA DODIA SUSMITA SAHOO Copyright (c) 2021 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 153 9 20 PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF HALOPHYTIC PLANT CRESSA CRETICA L. <p>Plants and animal products were the main sources of drugs for thousands of years and the use of natural products in the treatment and preservation of diseases is as old as human civilization Halophytic plants are also used to cure many different diseases. They are growing in coastal habitat like sand dune, mudflat and saline habitat. Halophytic plants are rich source of secondary metabolites. They contain alkaloids, flavanoids, phenols, tannins, saponins etc. so the study of phytochemical screening of halophytic plant is very important. So, this way I have selected to do preliminary phytochemical screening of <em>Cressa cretica L.</em> a halophytic plant.&nbsp;</p> RACHANA SUTHAR HITESHKUMAR A. SOLANKI Copyright (c) 2021 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2021-04-01 2021-04-01 153 ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF GALLIC ACID, CAFFIEC ACID AND FERULIC ACID USING HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY FROM CLITORIA TERNATEA L. An effective, simple and easy HPLC methodology was developed for isolation and purification of caffiec acid, ferulic acid and gallic acid from fresh leaves of Clitoria ternatea L. These polyphenolic acids were separated using thin layer chromatography and to detect the purification Enable C-18 column were used in a binary gradient programme. Linear regression was analyzed for limit of detection and limit of quantification values. The method was optimized and standardized for quick isolation and purification for polyphenolic acids and will be useful for characterization of Clitoria ternatea L. collected from of the Lower Gangetic Plain from Hoogly (West Bengal, India). Shweta Tripathi Shweta Tripahi Copyright (c) 2021 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 153 21 26 A PURVIEW OF PHYTOETYMOLOGICAL STUDY ON INDIAN ORCHID SPECIES <p>Names are important means for effective communication and reference. Etymology of scientific plant names connotes relationships between a botanist or author with the plant world. The present study disclosed hitherto unstudied as many as 36 bases of coining 92 species names pertaining to 46 genera of the Indian Orchidaceae. These bases are categorized as: (i) Plant features (27 bases), (ii) Indian features (08 bases) and (iii) patronyms after commemorated botanists (who botanised orchid flora or Indian territory in past and modern period). The utilitarian basis of coining names has remained largely untouched by the coiners of orchid specific epithets. Mostly, the bases of specific names are neglected or overlooked while keying out orchid taxa and even in phytographical descriptions in many Indian flora published to date. The present author seeks attention for inclusion of etymology of plant names in syllabi of Botany in Indian universities and colleges. Interpretation of specific epithets shows relation with land, life and legends of a region. Etymology of plant names if revealed to the learners of plant taxonomy, it would entice them nay, enthuse to study plant science in correct perspective.</p> S. K. TAYADE D.A. PATIL Copyright (c) 2021 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2021-03-03 2021-03-03 153 12 24 SOME SELECTED PLANTS VALUE FOR ETHNOREMEDIAL PRACTICES IN SEBHARGOG REGION, VADGAM TALUKA, NORTH GUJARAT <p>Around 2000 effective plant based formulations used in folk medicines and known to rural communities all over India. The present paper aims to explore the ethno-remedies used for the treatment of various diseases which are followed by the Bhaghats, Vaidyas, Local inhibitants, Hakims and Tribals residing in the Sebhargog forest area of Banaskantha district of North Gujarat. 46 plant species belonging&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 32 families in curing various diseases of the people described in brief in the present paper.</p> PATEL ASHOK H. Copyright (c) 2021 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2021-04-01 2021-04-01 153 STUDIES OF YEAST DIVERSITY FROM GARDEN SOILS OF SARVA VIDYALAYA CAMPUS, KADI <p>Soil microorganisms play an important role in maintaining soil quality&nbsp; and they interact closely with vegetation. Little is known about the diversity&nbsp; of yeasts ,their function in garden soil ecosystem and&nbsp; their interaction with other biotic soil components, particularly in the mycorrhizosphere. The 15 yeast strains were isolated from garden soil samples. The samples were taken from gardens located in Sarva Vidyalaya campus of &nbsp;the Kadi region. From the 15 yeast isolates obtained, morphologically and culturally diverse 7 isolates were selected for further study. These isolates were further characterized for the enzyme production and fermentation of various sugars. Many of the yeast species are known to be associated with lignocelluloses compound degradation, which suggest that yeast plays an important role as a decomposer in the garden soils. Soils have distinct yeast assemblages related to their physiological capacities and soil nutrient availability. The yeast isolates from soil can also be exploited for various industrial and biotechnological applications. These yeast isolates will be further studied for their various biochemical characterizations and their role in soil biogeochemical cycling.</p> KOMAL RUDANI DR. KALAVATI PRAJAPATI Copyright (c) 2021 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2021-04-01 2021-04-01 153 THE COMPARISSON OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF PSIDIUM GUAJAVA L. ON ESCHERICHIA COLI AND BACILLUS SUBTILIS <p>The antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals was evaluated with antibiotic susceptible and resistant microorganisms. The effect of various chemical constitutions are on zonation of inhibition by extracts plant. Also higher concentration and medium effect given by Decoction leaf extracts of <em>Psidium guajava</em> L. plant because the volatile chemical constituants only presents in the extract. In 150 ?l concentration of extract against <em>Escherichia coli</em> ranged from 21 mm to 23 mm and <em>Bacillus subtilis </em>ranged from 20 mm to 22 mm. Those inhibition of the growth of microbes colony and also inhibit the physiological reaction of microbes such as <em>E. Coli,</em> and <em>Bacillus substilis</em>.</p> DR. A.H. PATEL Copyright (c) 2021 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2021-03-03 2021-03-03 153 7 12 BIOLOGICAL SPECTRUM OF MOTIPURA VILLAGE CORRIDOR OF VIJAPUR TALUKO, MEHSANA DISTRICT, NORTH GUJARAT <p>Inside the present study, Spectra on life form, leaf size, leaf persistence, flowering season, and shade tolerance of trees in different vegetation types occurring within the Motipura village corridor are presented. 62 species of angiosperm flora have been categorized after Raunkiaer’s concept of existence-from instructions and biological spectrum of flowers of Motipura village corridor analyzed as “Phanerochamaephytic.” except this the proportion cost of the existence-from instructions were as compared and discussed&nbsp; inside&nbsp; the&nbsp; mild&nbsp; of&nbsp; Raunkiaer’s everyday spectrum.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> DR. A.H. PATEL Copyright (c) 2021 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2021-03-03 2021-03-03 153 1 6 A REVIEW ON SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES - A GREEN EXPERTISE <p>Nanotechnology is a broad interdisciplinary field of science that represents the design, synthesis, characterization and application of materials at nano scale level. Nanoparticles (NPs) are viewed as primary building blocks of nanotechnology. The term “nano scale” is usually referred to a scale between 1-100 nm. Silver and its compound have been widely used since from early time for the treatment of bacteria and wound infections particularly in patients of severe burns. The use of silver compounds has been deteriorated due to emergence of new therapeutic agents. In the past decade nanotechnology has acquired rapidity due to its ability of modifying metals ions into their nano range, which dramatically changes their chemical, physical and optical properties. Biological processes led to eco-friendly method of synthesis and safe process as compared to other methods. In this review, a low-cost and environment friendly technique for synthesis of AgNPs by biological approach was explained.</p> SNEHAL PATEL Copyright (c) 2021 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 153 SUCCESSFUL MANAGEMENT OF MUMMIFIED FOETUS IN A CROSS BRED HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN HEIFER A CASE REPORT <p><em>A Holstein Friesian crossbred heifer of around 2.5 years and around 400kg in body weight presented with complaint of not showing any signs of parturition even after completion of full term of pregnancy rather prolonged gestation period, (around 330 days) from the date of artificial insemination. Pregnancy was confirmed at around 90 days after insemination. Physiological parameters of heifer were found within normal range like temperature, heart rate, pulse rate and respiration rate. &nbsp;Body weight and posture were found normal. &nbsp;There was history of accidental fall of heifer while running in owner’s crop field, at around 5 months of pregnancy. Though there is no evidence of injury and sickness reported throughout the extended gestation period. Heifer neither showing signs of calving nor of estrous cycle. The animal was examined &nbsp;per rectally and the observation were; 1) presence of immobile, compact and firm mass without placental fluid or placentomes, in the birth canal, 2) presence of corpus luteum and no fremitus. &nbsp;While Per vaginal examination revealed, absence of any kind of discharges with completely closed cervix. On the basis of clinical examinations and observations, heifer was diagnosed to be having mummified foetus and was treated successfully with hormonal treatment.</em></p> RAJ KUMARI VISHWAKARMA Copyright (c) 2021 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 153 PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF TREE SPECIES OF SEBHARGOG REGION OF RESERVE FOREST OF VADGAM TALUKA IN NORTH GUJARAT, INDIA <p>Sebhargog region is situated in reserved forest of Vadgam taluka of Banaskantha Dist. North Gujarat.&nbsp; The forest type of this area is Dry deciduas&nbsp; and Desert thorn forest. Total 34 tree species are recorded&nbsp; in this range. &nbsp;<em>Acacia nilitica </em>L.,<em> Butea monosperma </em>L.,<em> Acacia chundra </em>L., is the most dominant in this area while <em>Delonix regia </em>(Bojer ex Hook.) Refin.,<em> Morinda tomentosa</em> Lam and <em>Moringa oleifera</em> Lam are the minimum number in this area. The highest GBH range shown from <em>Ficus bengalensis</em> L. but whole forest have a more than 80% trees possesses GBH range 11 to 60 cm, so the scenario of forest after 10 year is good. &nbsp;</p> ASHOK H. PATEL Copyright (c) 2021 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 153 1 9 WEED DIVERSITY AND THEIR SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS IN GANDHINAGAR DISTRICT, GUJARAT, INDIA <p>To find the diversity of weeds of Gandhinagar district the study was carried out for period of 2 years from March ‘2011 to February ‘2013. The present study was carried out on 20 selected sites of four talukas of Gandhinagar district. Weed collection was made with repeated field trips encompassing all the different seasons. During the field work and collection, special attention was given to record the characters of weeds. Weeds have been investigated by collection and identification. During summer season total 44 species, during monsoon season total 67 species and during winter season total 73 species were recorded in present study. Total 184 weed species were recorded.</p> PROF. HITESH A. SOLANKI2 DR. BINNY H. KARLIKAR1 Copyright (c) 2021 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2021-01-06 2021-01-06 153 9 11 ETYMOLOGICAL DERIVATION OF SYNONYMS OF ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS WILLD. FROM VARIOUS NIGHANTUS <p>The medicinal plant <em>Asparagus racemosus </em>commonly known as <em>Shatavari</em> is one among the major drug in the Ayurvedic system of medicine due to its medicinal and tonic properties. Ayurveda makes clear to the knowledge about the wholesome and unwholesome substances (food and drug) all along with their properties (<em>Guna</em>) and actions (<em>Karma</em>), which indicates the importance of <em>Dravya</em>- <em>Ahara</em> and <em>Aushadha</em> (food and drug substances) has its name for correct identity in Ayurveda. <em>Paryayas</em> (Synonyms) help in identification of medicinal plants and they are the symbols of identity to a plant. Most of the synonyms given based on the morphological structures like the shape of leaf, inflorescence, flower`s colour, shape, fruit’s sizes, structure of roots, habitat, historical importance etc. Synonyms are also given on the basis of properties (<em>Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka &amp; Prabhava</em>),<em> Doshaghnata </em>(pacifying vitiated doshas) and <em>Rogaghnata</em> (therapeutic indications). The knowledge of various synonyms like local, regional, trade, classical synonyms, scientific names are very important to an Ayurvedic scholar, which makes him distinct than the others. The present study reveals that the critical analysis of the text and the drugs with their synonyms. Here it was studied that all the synonyms by Sanskrit- <em>Nirukti</em> version and suitable meaning was established. Apart from this, Ayurvedic proforma for standardization also adopted as mentioned in<em> Vimana sthana</em> of <em>Charaka samhita. </em>The species <em>Asparagus racemosus</em> is mostly fitted with most of the norms of Ayurvedic drug evaluation and can be considered as <em>Shatavari</em>.</p> DR. DILIP K. JANI2 AND DR. SUMAN SINGH3 DR.KINJAL UNADKAT1 Copyright (c) 2021 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2021-01-06 2021-01-06 153 1 8 GLOBAL WARMING, CO2, FOSSIL FUELS AND LIFE: A PHOTOTHERMAL ALTERNATIVE SOLUTION FOR SOLAR ENERGY ON-DEMAND Climate change has been a continuously occurring process since the beginning of time and will continue till the end of time. Over the last 650,000 years there has been no less than seven cycles of glacial advance and retreat, resulting in the sudden end of the last ice age about 11,700 years ago marking the start of the modern climate era and the human race as we know it to be. The sudden and continual increase of Water Vapor (H2O), Nitrous Oxide (N2O), Methane (CH4) and most importantly Carbon dioxide (CO2) (which has increased in atmospheric concentration by more than triple fold since the beginning of the industrial revolution in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840 in Europe and the United States) has been the greatest contributor to climate change. Worldwide the greatest contributor to climate change, the biggest and most pressing threat to human life, Carbon dioxide is the burning of fossil fuels for electricity, transportation and other industrial uses. The use of power generators reliant on the burning of these fossil fuels for electricity production contribute immensely to CO2 atmospheric concentration and must hence be checked. This paper outlines how the use of a solar thermal energy harvesting application for use in vaporized-liquid powered closed-loop-turbine for electric power generation will help reduce dependencies on fossil fuels, protect life from its adverse effects and inadvertently delay the climate change. Yusuf Isa-Yusuf Shuza Binzaid Copyright (c) 2020 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 153 19 32 FLORISTIC DIVERSITY AT KANSA VILLAGE, GUJARAT by SNEHAL THAKOR AND RANNA CHAUDHARY Total 193 angiospermic plants recorded during field study in various parts of Kansa village situated in Mehsana district of Visnagar taluka in northern part of Gujarat state. Recorded plants divided in three categories e.g. Aquatic plants, Terrestrial plants and Marshy plants. SNEHAL THAKOR RANNA CHAUDHARY Copyright (c) 2020 2020-11-01 2020-11-01 153 1 9 NITROGEN ENRICHMENT OF STRAW COMPOST ASSOCIATED WITH GROWTH OF PLEUROTUS MUSHROOM by A. SENGUPTA1, A. ROY CHOWDHURY2 AND S CHAUDHURI 3 Pleurotus is one edible wood rotting fungus artificially cultivated in cereal straw for production of protein rich mushroom fruit bodies. Average protein content of straw-grown Pleurotus mushrooms range between 25-30% of dry weight. Protein yield from high C/N ratio cereal straw composted with Pleurotus does not equivalence with nitrogen content of unsupplemented straw on per unit weight basis. We present here evidence of diazotrophic nitrogen fixation during 50-day growth of Pleurotus citrinopileatus in rice straw compost timed with spawn run to fruit body production. P. citrinopileatus grown straw compost, simultaneous to loss in dry weight during 50-day incubation period showed incremental values of nitrogenase activity measured as acetylene reduction activity. There was a parallel increase in the population of nitrogen fixing bacteria as indicated by bacterial colony counts of composted straw in nitrogen-less specific nutrient medium. Pleuorotus, during its growth on straw breaks down hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin to liberate sugars that allow substantial growth of straw-associated nitrogen fixing bacteria in the moist, micro-aerophilic environment of the compost. Nitrogen fixed by the bacteria is utilized by the fungus to yield protein rich mycelium and fruit body in one of the most outstanding prokaryote-eukaryote bioconversion systems of nature. *A. SENGUPTA1, A. ROY CHOWDHURY2 AND S CHAUDHURI 3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-10-08 2020-10-08 153 28 34 ENUMERATION OF FAUNAL DIVERSITY OF SACRED GROVES LOCATED IN THE GREAT HIMALAYAN NATIONAL PARK (GHNP), KULLU, HIMACHAL PRADESH (INDIA) <p>Despite massive deforestation and land use changes in India, one of the most irrepressible characteristics of the country’s landscape is the sacred forests. Owing to their ‘<em>divine’</em> protection, a number of floral and faunal species that have otherwise been exploited from the forests continue to exist in the sacred groves. The study is based on the documentation of faunal diversity present in the sacred groves located in the GHNP, Kullu. 75 faunal species were recorded in the study area. The faunal diversity consisted of 16 Mammals, 21 Aves, 6 Reptiles and 32 Arthropods. The mammals and the aves have been enlisted along with their IUCN conservation status.</p> Dr. Pankaj Gupta Copyright (c) 2020 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 153 8 18 SCREENING FOR DIVERSE BIOPOLYMER DEGRADING MICROBES FROM VEGETABLE MARKET WASTE OF KADI <p>The fruit and vegetable wastes are rich source of diverse biopolymers <em>viz, </em>cellulose, pectin, and xylan. Presence of such biopolymer selectively promotes the growth of microorganisms which produce the cellulase, pectinase and xylanase enzymes to degrade cellulose, pectin, and xylan respectively. These organisms have potential to be used for waste treatment and composting of organic matter rich waste including fruit and vegetable wastes. The present study was conducted for isolation and screening of cellulase, pectinase and xylanase producing microorganism from vegetable market waste of Kadi. The isolation for cellulose, pectin, and xylan degraders was carried out by enrichment followed by screening on solid medium. In the primary screening, 42 isolates were selected on basis of zone hydrolysis ratio. Among these, 34 Mesophilic bacterial isolates, 4 thermo-tolerant bacterial isolates and 4 fungal isolates were there. For all the selected isolates, the zone ratio for cellulose degraders was in range of 1.42 to 7. The zone ratio of pectin degraders was in range of 1.33 to 9.33. The zone ratio for xylan degraders was in range of 1.2 to 9. The total of 9 isolates showed good degradation potential for all the three polymers tested and also seem promising for further studies.</p> Harsha Soni Dr. Minal Trivedi Ms.Pooja Gupta Copyright (c) 2020 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2020-11-01 2020-11-01 153 FIRST RECORD OF GENUS RHAGODES, POCOCK, 1897 (SOLIFUGAE: RHAGODIDAE) FROM GUJARAT, INDIA <p><em>This study documented and reports of Genus Rhagodes, Pocock, 1897for the first time for Gujarat. A detailed morphological diagnosis and description and body measurement were given based on a single female.</em></p> Bhavesh Parmar Copyright (c) 2020 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 153 1 7 THE FIRST RECORD OF GALEODES INDICUS POCOCK, 1900 (SOLIFUGAE: GALEODIDAE) FROM GUJARAT, INDIA Present study reports Galeodes indicus Pocock, 1900 (Solifugae: Galeodidae) recorded the first time for Gujarat. A detailed morphological description, diagnosis, body measurement, and geographical distribution of the species are provided. Distribution of Galeodes indicus in India is mapped. DR. B. M. PARMAR Copyright (c) 2020 2020-09-01 2020-09-01 153 46 51 A STUDY ON THE ROLE OF STENOTROPHOMONAS MALTOPHILIA AND STENOTROPHOMONAS PAVANII IN SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE <p><em>Stenotrophomonas maltophilia</em> and <em>Stenotrophomonas pavanii</em>, the two PGPRs are our point of attention which has been reviewed in the light of their contribution in sustainable agriculture. PGPRs are a group a root colonizing bacteria which enhance plant growth by direct as well as indirect mechanisms. They can produce phytohormones, solubilize phosphate, produce siderophore, antibiotics and give resistance against seed borne pathogens also. So, the PGPRs can stimulate plant growth without hampering plant’s health. In this article, the role of <em>Stenotrophomonas maltophilia</em> and <em>Stenotrophomonas pavanii </em>in sustainable agriculture is discussed.</p> Ananya Roy Chowdhury Copyright (c) 2020 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2020-11-01 2020-11-01 153 PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF GENETIC IMPROVEMENT OF CATTLE AND BUFFALOES IN INDIAN DAIRY PRODUCTION SYSTEMS <p>Selection and mating systems are the two basic tools used in animal breeding to genetically improve the livestock. Modern breeding programs are formulated in a way to utilize either genetic variation or generation interval or intensity of selection or accuracy of selection or a combination of these factors. However, selection is considered as the key to genetic improvement in the herd. It is actually an alternate form of culling where the inferior animals are culled for the desired economic traits and the superior animals are retained based on phenotypic or genetic selection. A large number of genes govern the economic traits in dairy animals and these traits also get influenced by non-genetic or environmental factors. The phenotypic variation (V<sub>p</sub>) in economic traits is due to the combined effect of genetic (V<sub>g</sub>) and environmental variation (V<sub>e</sub>) i.e. V<sub>p</sub> = V<sub>g</sub> +V<sub>e</sub>. The breeder plays its role by minimizing the environmental variation such that V<sub>p</sub> is as close as possible to V<sub>g</sub>. The ratio of V<sub>g</sub> to V<sub>p</sub> is referred as heritability and its magnitude determines the effectiveness of selection. Very low or zero heritability indicates that the trait cannot be improved by selection but improving the feed and managemental conditions can help in trait improvement. High heritability (0.50 or more) of a trait indicates that individual’s own performance can be used as the basis of selection. Moderate heritability (0.20 to 0.35) indicates one to resort to Progeny Testing for genetic evaluation of animals. With the growing concept of sustainability it is now felt that strategies need to be developed on the basis of agro ecological zones so that the locally available resources can be used efficiently and productivity can be enhanced. India is divided into 15 agro-climatic regions and 126 agro-climatic sub-zones based on rainfall, temperature, soil-type, topography, existing cropping pattern and farm animal resources for developing policies on regional basis. Different “Farming systems” are identified, classified and mapped in each agro-climatic zone. Emphasis on studying the Animal Production Systems prevalent under different agro-ecological zones has also been laid by FAO under the Domestic Animal Diversity Information Systems (DAD-IS).</p> MANJARI PANDEY Copyright (c) 2020 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2020-11-01 2020-11-01 153 2. ROLE OF FARM PONDS IN IMPROVING PRODUCTIVITYAND FARM INCOME IN DRYLAND AREA by RAVI DUPDAL1, S.L. PATIL3, B.S. NAIK2 AND RAMESHA M.N.1 <p>The development of holistic and sustainable growth in dryland agriculture in Karnataka, Krishi Bhagya Scheme was introduced during 2014-15. The primary objective of the scheme was to harvest surplus run-off water through dug-out farm ponds constructed under scheme for protective and life saving irrigation at critical crop stages for enhancing crop productivity and income of resource poor dryland farmers. The scheme helps to integrate different farming system such as agriculture, horticulture, fisheries and dairying for creating employment opportunities, reduction of out-migration and ultimately enhance the on-farm and off-farm income of farming communities in dryland areas. Further, farm ponds constructed under the scheme will enhance the dryland crop productivity up to 25-30 per cent as compare to existing one<strong>.</strong></p> Ravi Dupdal Copyright (c) 2020 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2020-10-01 2020-10-01 153 9 14 Review Article: ENZYMATIC OIL EXTRACTION PROCESSES FROM EDIBLE AND NON EDIBLE OIL SEEDS by VIKRAM SOLANKI1, DHAVAL PRAJAPATI2 AND SHREYAS BHATT1 <p><em>The extraction of oil from edible and non edible oilseeds by solvent extraction step by mechanical and chemical for industrial purpose. Normally, hexane is used as a solvent; this process have been operated commercially for a long time. In the past, due to use of hexane, there is chances of environmental pollution and low oil yield. So use of hexane was reduced. The present scenario to be changing. Interest in aqueous extraction processes has been becoming popular due to its environmental concern. An aqueous process is looked upon as ecofriendly technology for oil extraction.. Other advantages of the aqueous process compared with solvent-based processes include: (I) Higher extraction of edible and non edible oil and protein (2) Minimum damage of protein during extraction, and (3) Good process safety due to the minimum fire&nbsp; risk and explosion. Due to the solvent recovery step is elimination, aqueous extraction processes may be more cost effective. The limitations of this process are: (I) Oil extraction with minimum efficiency as reported in earlier studies and&nbsp; (2) Final treatment of the aqueous effluent. Enzymes are used for the improving oil yield in the aqueous processes. Specific enzymes have been tried on different oil seeds resulting in much higher oil extraction than the aqueous process. These hydrolyzing enzymes &nbsp;hydrolyze the polysaccharides of cell wall of oilseeds. </em></p> Dhaval Dineshbhai Prajapati Vikram Solanki1 , Dhaval Prajapati2 and Shreyas Bhatt1 Copyright (c) 2020 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2020-10-01 2020-10-01 153 15 27 ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF VEGETATION AT KAMALPUR VILLAGE, MEHSANA, GUJARAT <p><em>Gujarat has rich traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity. The present paper deals with the nature of ecological vegetation in Kamalpur village. For the study of vegetation list quadrat method is applied. Repeated quadrat sampling leads to occurrence of 10 trees species with their frequency, abundance and density. The frequency to Raunkiers classification and IVI value were done. </em></p> JAHNVI PANDYA2 AND N. K. PATEL3 RANNA CHAUDHARY1 Copyright (c) 2020 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2020-09-01 2020-09-01 153 01 08 INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE ON TRADITIONAL AGARBATTI MAKING OF SUTRADHAR COMMUNITY, ASSAM by P. HAZARIKA1, BISWAS, S.C.2 AND SUTRADHAR COMMUNITY <p>A case study was carried out in Dhupdhara area of Goalpara district, Assam during 2014-2016 to document knowledge base applied in production of traditional agarbatti by Sutradhar Community. Elderly persons including women of Sutradhar Community involved in making traditional agarbatti were interviewed. Traditional process of making agarbatti was documented. The bark of two plant species locally known as Laham [Litsea&nbsp;glutinosa&nbsp;(Lour.) C.B.Rob. syn : Litsea sebifera Pers.] and Makhunda (Croton roxburgii Balakr.) are main constituent of the agarbatti made traditionally by the community. The resin extracted from Shorea robusta Geartn. and Boswellia serreta Triana &amp; Planch., is utilized as Sal Dhuna and Dhuna as the source of fragrance for preparation of traditional agarbatti. This agarbatti is specially utilized by local communities in puja and other festivals and have a local demand. The traditional agarbatti produce by Sutradhar community may be a viable livelihood option with technology support.</p> Prosanta Hazarika Copyright (c) 2020 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2020-10-01 2020-10-01 153 1 8 STATUS OF FLORESTIC DIVERSITY OF ROADSIDE VEGETATION OF SELECTED AREA FROM KACHCHH DISTRICT, GUJARAT STATE Floral diversity is one of the most important words in the field of conservation of biodiversity. The study of floral diversity helps us to improve enumeration and documentation of the plant wealth, its Potentiality, and its significance in any given area. It also helps us to understand the basic aspects of ecology such as speciation, isolation, endemism, and evolution. Flora of any area is not fixed up and its floristic components change from time to time due to various abiotic and biotic factors. The floristic composition may be changed, the total number of species may be changed invasion of exotic species may be occurred, dominant species may be replaced by other species, etc. thus the floristic study is important for the documentation of the present status of the vegetation of the given area. The present study deals with the documentation of the floral diversity of the selected study site. i.e. road-side vegetation on the Mandvi-Bhuj highway. The study was carried using a random sampling method to enumerate the status of the floral diversity of the selected study site. A total of 56 species of 49 genera belonging to 28 families were recorded. Out of the total 56 species, trees were recorded with 18 species, shrubs were recorded with 9 species while herbs and climbers were recorded with 29 species, respectively. The focus of this study provides the Current status of a floristic wealth of the selected study site. RAJDIP NANDANIA1, ALPESH MALSATAR2 AND P.K. MEHTA3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-08-01 2020-08-01 153 17 24 EFFECT OF PAN EVAPO-REPLENISHMENT BASED MICRO IRRIGATION AND FERTIGATION ON GROWTH, YIELD AND WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF NAGPUR MANDARIN IN CENTRAL INDIA <p><em>A field experiment was conducted for two consecutive years to study the effect of different levels of pan evapo-replenishment based micro irrigation and fertigation on growth, yield and water use efficiency of Nagpur Mandarin in Central India. Experimental findings revealed that, with higher fruit yield efficiency (2.64 kg/m3 tree vol.) and water use efficiency (4.90 kg fruits/ tree/m3 water) I<sub>2 </sub>(micro-irrigation @ 80% of ET replenishment)treatment is best in combination with F<sub>2</sub> (80% of RDF via. fertigation), F<sub>3 </sub>(90% of RDF via. fertigation) and F<sub>4 </sub>(100% of RDF via. fertigation). Whereas, I<sub>2</sub>F<sub>2</sub> (80% micro-irrigation + 80% of RDF via. fertigation) can be considered as best treatment to save natural resources with economically viable yield as it has higher fruit yield efficiency (3.07 kg/m3 tree vol.) and statistically at par B: C ratio (2.76) with higher yielding treatments.</em></p> DARSHAN KADAM Copyright (c) 2020 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2020-09-01 2020-09-01 153 22 37 REPRODUCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF LOCAL SHEEP BREEDS IN THE SAHARAN REGION OF BÉCHAR IN ALGERIA <p><em>The objective of this study was to investigate the reproductive characteristics of local sheep breeds farming in a Saharian region of Algeria. The method used was a questionnaire to assess general information about sheep breeding for 65 local breeders, 12 of whom were following monthly over one year in order to determine some reproductive parameters including fertility, prolificacy, and lambs mortality. Our results revealed that the reproductive management was characterized by free mating, early age at first lambing, and non-seasonal distribution of lambing. For the reproductive parameters of the flocks monitored, the fertility, prolificacy, and lambs mortality were respectively: 91.69%, 110.51%, and 14.35%. These results allowed us to conclude that the local sheep breeds raised in the Saharian region of Béchar has a high reproductive potential, but the reproductive management of flocks is still relatively traditional and not well developed.&nbsp; </em></p> FOUAD GANI ABDELLATIF NIAR Copyright (c) 2020 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2020-09-01 2020-09-01 153 38 45 3. MANAGEMENT OF FETAL MUMMIFICATION IN A HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN COW- A CASE REPORT by PRAMOD KUMAR, SHIVENDRA KUMAR BHALOTHIA1, TAPENDRA KUMAR1, SATISH2, BHANU PRAKASH, 1 RAJENDRA MEHRA1 AND SASI G1 A rare case of fetal mummification delivered per vaginally in a Holstein Friesian cow after inducing dilation of the birth canal is reported. PRAMOD KUMAR*, SHIVENDRA KUMAR BHALOTHIA1, TAPENDRA KUMAR1, SATISH2, BHANU PRAKASH, 1 RAJENDRA MEHRA1 AND SASI G1 AND SASI G1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 153 16 TO 19 16 TO 19 2. PICO-WATTS POWERED MULTIFUNCTIONAL ACTIVE SENSOR FOR DETECTION OF HARMFUL ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION by SHUZA BINZAID AND ADEYEMI TAYLOR Electronics devices and components including computers, tablets, and many home appliances produce electromagnetic emission and it should be at certain low levels. Health is always a concern for today's technologies that have high-frequency signal emission. To protect health from harmful electromagnetic and radiation environments, it is desirable to design multifunctional sensors that can be used to monitor both earth and space environments. This work involves the simulation and design of multifunctional sensors and electronic modules suitable for both space and earth environments. The sensors will incorporate microcontroller-based hardware-software solutions for various sensing applications. The sensors will be tested using customized program codes. Preliminary work has shown that it is possible to have multifunctional sensor that can detect two types of harmful environments. Work to be done include designing newer materials, making sensor system compact, and developing the sensor driving electronics. In addition, methods to fabricate the sensors in-house would be developed and fine-tuned for repeatable production. It is envisage that the product of this work will be the development of compact multifunctional sensors that will alert users of hazardous environments caused by ionization, radiation and electromagnetic emission. The multifunctional sensors to be developed may be used for space technology, satellites, medical, handheld mobile and IoT devices. Several government agencies, such as NSF, NASA, Department of Defense, EPA, might be interested in funding further developments of this work. ADEYEMI TAYLOR SHUZA BINZAID Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 153 10 TO 15 10 TO 15 CONTRIBUTION OF TREE DIVERSITY OF BHUJ URBAN LANDSCAPE TO MAINTAIN THE ECOLOGICAL BALANCE OF SURROUNDING ECOSYSTEMS, KACHCHH-GUJARAT <p>This study conducted between 2018 and 2019 with assessment of all trees in Bhuj Urban Landscape- BUL and collected all ecological data required for calcuation of carbon sequestraion by tree cover. As we know, due to urbanisation and many more development in urban landcsape, surrounding ecosystems are under heavy presuure and degraded with loss of biodiversity and ecological services providing to urban population. A total of four main ecosystems are existing in and around the BUL are tropical thorn forests, scrub forest, wetland-riverine forest and agriculture areas. During this study, a total of 128 tree species under 92 genera and 44 families are recorded from BUL; with a total of 157 individual trees are also documented as more than 50 years old and plantated at various localities. Among all trees recorded, several species like <em>Tamarindus indica, Delonix regia, Azadirechta indica, Ficus religiosa, Ficus benghalensis, </em><em>Pithecellobium dulce</em>,<em>Polyalthia longifolia </em>and <em>Leucaena leucocephala</em>are predominantly recorded in BUL with highest calculation of carbon storage.</p> KAZBANU SUMRA Dr.Ekta Joshi Dr.Pankaj Joshi Copyright (c) 2020 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2020-09-01 2020-09-01 153 09 21 PREVALENCE AND ISOLATION OF AVIAN PATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI FROM COLIBACILLOSIS AFFECTED BROILER CHICKEN IN KASHMIR VALLEY <p>The scenario of poultry diseases has also changed with emerging and re-emerging diseases flaring up, thus imposing a threat to the poultry industry. Among poultry diseases, avian colibacillosis caused by <em>Escherichia coli</em> results in huge economic loss in terms of huge mortality. The present study was thus aimed to isolate and identify the Avian Pathogenic <em>Escherichia coli</em> (APEC) and to study its prevalence in broiler chicken of Kashmir Valley, India. A total of 135 outbreaks of colibacillosis in broiler chicken were recorded from three different districts namely Srinagar, Ganderbal and Pulwama. The overall mortality in the flocks was 3.1% and a case prevalence of 25.6% of colibacillosis was reported. The isolation tests were found reliable in the prompt and timely diagnosis of colibacillosis to prevent the huge economic losses of poultry farmers.</p> Sheikh Adil Copyright (c) 2020 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2020-07-01 2020-07-01 153 06 13 ANALYSIS OF WATER QUALITY OF LAKE TANA USING SOME BACTERIAL INDICATORS, NORTHWESTERN ETHIOPIA <p><em>Water quality degradation is a problem of Lake Tana. The aim of this study was to assess human impacts on water quality of Lake Tana using some indicator bacteria. E.coli was highest at S<sub>8</sub> (40 cfu/100 ml) and S<sub>7</sub> (48 cfu/100 ml), while at S<sub>0</sub>, S<sub>4</sub> and S<sub>5</sub> (0 cfu/100 ml) in the wet season and it increased in the dry season in the range of 2 cfu/100 ml (S<sub>0 </sub>and S<sub>1</sub>) to 14 cfu/100 ml (S<sub>9</sub>). And also, F. coliform showed 0 cfu/100 ml at the reference site (S<sub>0</sub>) and the highest at the impacted site S<sub>7 </sub>(232 cfu/100 ml) in the wet season while in the dry season 0 cfu/100 ml was detected at S<sub>0</sub> and 103 cfu/100 ml detected at S<sub>9</sub>. </em><em>Analysis for total coliform (TC) ranges from 2 cfu/100 ml (S<sub>0</sub>) to 240 cfu/100 ml (S<sub>7</sub>) in the wet season and 13 cfu/100 ml (S<sub>2</sub>) to 136 cfu/100 ml (S<sub>9</sub>) in the dry season, with an average of 54.6364 </em><em>cfu/100 ml which indicates the presence of contamination and the water was very poor for drinking.</em></p> Sisay Misganaw Tamiru Copyright (c) 2020 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2020-08-01 2020-08-01 153 6 16 CONSEQUENCES OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON VARIOUS ECOSYSTEMS AND THEIR IMPACT ON WILDLIFE <p>Wildlife management among the multiple other concerns resulting from climate change will be challenging. Therefore, developing and communicating information on the value of wild species and ecosystems to human community will be an important strategy for conservation of wildlife from extinction due to the impact of climate change. Developing, managing and retaining an effective system of protected areas network (PAN) is a form of success. Changes in temperature and precipitation will affect individuals, species, ecosystems and whole regions. Individual variation and topographic differences will mean that, within any species, an individual plant or animal may be genetically predisposed to survive the stresses of dehydration, high winds or inundation for longer than another. Thus, at the micro-habitat level, each tiny location may see changes in species composition; these changes will have up and down the trophic levels and throughout the food-web, ultimately changing ecological communities at the landscape level. Predicting the consequences for humans and other species is essential if measures are to be taken in time, either to prevent these changes or adapt to them. Further research and careful monitoring is needed to ensure that adaptive management and creation of new other approaches for existing and newly emerging concepts to overcome climate change pressures on wildlife.</p> Baranidharan Krishnamoorthy Vijayabhama Manickam Copyright (c) 2020 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2020-08-01 2020-08-01 153 25 37 A RESEARCH NOTE ON ALBINISM IN AZADIRACHTA INDICA A.JUSS. <p>Albino seedlings appear during the process of natural regeneration of <em>Azadirachta indica</em> were reported here. These albinic individuals are not able to survival long term due to lack of chlorophyll pigment. In present study we report neem albino seedlings, among the 34 progenies five progenies viz., TN-MTP-16, TN-MTP-21, TN-MTP-35, TN-MTP-42 and KA-BGL-01 are produced albino seedlings at 3 %. This may due to immature seeds or environmental factors or mutations that have occurred between seed formation and germination stage.</p> Prabakaran Palanisamy Copyright (c) 2020 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2020-08-01 2020-08-01 153 1 5 CARBON STOCK ESTIMATION IN PICHAVARAM MANGROVE FOREST, TAMIL NADU, INDIA <p>The study was carried out during 2020 in Pichavaram mangrove wetland site located between Lat. 11°20’N and Long 79°55’E. Pichavaram mangrove forest is situated between two prominent estuaries, the Vellar estuary in the north and Coleroon estuary in the south. The Vellar-Coleroon estuarine complex forms the Killai backwater and Pichavaram mangroves. Seven circular plots were established with a radius of 17.84 m and an area of 1000 m² per plot in four sites classified as Plot 1, 2, 3 and 4. These plots were laid out in selected reserve forest areas of Killai, Pichavaram and Pichavaram Extension. Three pools of carbon were considered to measure the carbon stored in mangrove ecosystems. They were above-ground biomass, below-ground biomass/root and sediment/soil. Above-ground biomass (Wtop) and root biomass (WR) were estimated using the allometric equations for mangroves. The soil samples were collected in the landward side, dense and seaward mangroves stand in a depth of 0-15 cm, 15-30 cm, 30-60 cm and 60-90 cm using a stainless steel spade. Among 4 sample plots, the maximum biomass of 113.80 tonnes/hectare and biomass carbon of 56.90 tonnes/hectare was recorded in Plot 3 of Pichavaram RF. The minimum biomass of 32.61 tonnes/hectare and minimum biomass carbon of 16.31 tonnes/ha was recorded in plot 2. Estimated results were found clear that role of mangrove soil as an important carbon pool. Mangroves ecosystem played an auspicious role in mitigate the climate change impacts through carbon storage and it proved that it has maximum potential in carbon sequestration through analysis. In addition with, the founded results clearly depicts that it is important to conserve mangroves and wetland ecosystems.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> SEWA SINGH1* Copyright (c) 2020 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2020-07-01 2020-07-01 153 14 22 4. MANAGEMENT OF DYSTOCIA DUE TO BREECH PRESENTATION IN A HOLSTEIN FRIESIANS COW- A CASE REPORT by PRAMOD KUMAR, SATISH1, SHIVENDRA KUMAR BHALOTHIA2, TAPENDRA KUMAR2, BHANU PRAKASH2, RAJENDRA MEHRA2 AND SASI G2 <p>A rare case of breech presentation with arthrogryposis in one hind limb and its correction with mutation is reported. Post-operative care comprised of administration of antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, ecobolics, along with multivitamin supplements.</p> PRAMOD KUMAR*, SATISH1, SHIVENDRA KUMAR BHALOTHIA2, TAPENDRA KUMAR2, BHANU PRAKASH2, RAJENDRA MEHRA2, SAS GI Copyright (c) 0 2020-05-01 2020-05-01 153 39 TO 43 39 TO 43 3. PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL STUDY OF SOME WEEDS IN AGRICULTURE CROP FIELD IN SAMI TALUKA by S.D. PATEL AND H.M. ANT <p>A weed is a plant which grows naturally with crop and decreases the quality and quantity of crop and it’s compete with crop all over the world. Here we work to know the distribution the weeds in crop field in Sami taluka by using the some ecological parameters which are density, frequency and abundance. These were calculated by its proper formula given in methodology section. After completing this study we have recorded 47 weeds plant species belonging to 45 genera and 21 families. From it 40 species were Dicotyledone and 7 species were Monocot. Asteraceae is the leading plant family with 8 number of plant.</p> H.M. ANT S.D. PATEL Copyright (c) 0 2020-05-01 2020-05-01 153 29 TO 38 29 TO 38 STRATEGIES FOR QUALITY MILK PRODUCTION <p>In today’s competitive local and global market, the quality of milk is as much important as the quantity of milk to get maximum profit. With growing health concern among the consumers it is necessary to maintain quality milk production. Only healthy cows managed under hygienic and clean environment can produce quality milk. Mastitis, udder infections and general infections are one of the major reasons of decreasing the milk quality. An effective mastitis control program can be an efficient approach. Once the milk is drawn out of cow, the retention or preservation of milk quality requires cleanliness, sanitation and careful handling. Quality milk production requires safer strategies to be adopted at each stage of production. Regular screening of animals and milk handlers for infectious and general diseases can help in better management and production of quality milk and milk products for consumption.</p> MANJARI PANDEY Copyright (c) 2020 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2020-07-01 2020-07-01 153 01 05 4. DIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL RICE VARIETIES AND THEIR MEDICINAL BENEFITS FOR HUMAN BENEFITS by VELPRABAKARAN S1, RAJESWARI S1 AND BRINDADEVI S2 <p>Rice is one of the most important food crops of the world. Among all the Asian countries, India is the prominent rice growing country accounting for about 1/4<sup>th</sup> of world’s rice production. It ranks third after wheat and maize in terms of worldwide production. Rice is also a good source of vitamins such as thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and dietary fibres, but it is unfortunate that rice does not supply the essential minerals adequately. It has to be made productive through several achievements in rice breeding programme, especially in sustainable food grain production with quality concern. Rice exists in different colors such as white, purple, black, red and brown. Although white rice is the most widely consumed rice, pigmented rice is considered as enriched rice for taste and health benefits due to the presence of anthocyanins. Cereal grains play an important role in meeting the nutrient needs of the human population. The quality of cereal products is determined by a variety of characteristics which may be assigned different significance depending on the desired and use or type of product. Rice is undoubtedly the most important cereal of the world providing 21 per cent of global human per capita energy and 15 per cent of per capita protein. There is future need to expand the genetic base of the rice crop by introgressing genes from diverse sources.</p> VELPRABAKARAN S Copyright (c) 2020 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 153 20 TO 25 20 TO 25 1. SCREENING OF PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF MEDICINAL PLANT GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE (ASCLEPIADACEAE) by J. B. BHADIYATAR1, D. D. PRAJAPATI2, V.C. SOLANKI1, D. H. DAVE1 AND S. A. BHATT1 <p>To evaluate antimicrobial activities of aqueous from, Acetone, Petroleum ether, Methanol, D/W, Dimethylformamide, Dimethyl Sulfoxide extract of Plant <em>Gymnema sylvestre</em> (<em>G. sylvestre</em>) leaves and Steam.</p> <p>The antimicrobial screening of extract <em>G. sylvestre</em> against common microbes like <em>Bacillus cereus (B. cereus),</em> <em>Escherichia coli (E. coli), </em>by agar well diffusion method, where MIC, MBC, MFC was carried out. The aqueous and Methanol leaf and steam extract showed significant antibacterial activities against the selected microorganisms and were compared to the standard antibiotic respectively.</p> <p>The leaves of <em>G. sylvestre</em> might represent a new antimicrobial source with stable, biologically active components that can show a scientific base for the use in modern medicine.</p> DHAVAL DINESHBHAI PRAJAPATI Copyright (c) 2020 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 153 01 TO 09 01 TO 09 2. PHYSIOCHEMICAL STUDY OF DEJLA DEVADA DAM IN KHARGONE, MADHYA PRADESH, INDIA by BHUR S. SOLANKI AND HARI S. DWIVEDI1 <p>The present study was conducted to analysis the physico-chemical parameters of Dejla Devada Dam, Khargone. For this study the water samples were collected from four sampling stations during the July to December 2017. The range of various physico-chemical parameters were observed that Turbidity (35.00 - 55.00)&nbsp; NTU, pH (7.10 - 9.25), DO (6.55 - 8.65) mg/l, BOD (3.20 - 5.95) mg/l, COD (9.10 - 11.80) mg/l, Total alkalinity (225 - 350) mg/l, Total Dissolved Solid (300 - 482) mg/l, Total salinity (220 - 286) mg/l, Total hardness (72 - 128) mg/l and Nitrate (0.104 - 0.139) mg/l during the study. It is indicating for increasing in pollution of Dejla Devada Dam, Khargone, which need control industrial waste, sewage discharge and human activities as well as agricultural activities in the water body.</p> BHUR S. SOLANKI* HARI S. DWIVEDI1 Copyright (c) 0 2020-04-01 2020-04-01 153 08 TO 18 08 TO 18 1. CROSSBREEDING AND ITS IMPACT ON THE STATUS OF CATTLE BREEDS IN INDIA-A REVIEW by MANJARI PANDEY <p>The “white revolution” is closely linked to the introduction of crossbreeding in India. Since its use from 1875 till now, it has first helped India to become self sufficient and then the highest milk producing country in the world. Several crossbreds were developed using the indigenous and exotic cattle breeds. As a result of crossbreeding the F1 progeny showed the hybrid vigour in terms of increased milk production, decreased calving interval, early age of sexual maturity etc but maintaining this vigor in subsequent generation s require very delicately prepared breeding program along with better infrastructure for artificial insemination. The review highlights the history of cross breeding in India along with the development of some of the important crossbreds, its consequences and future prospects</p> MANJARI PANDEY Copyright (c) 0 2020-04-01 2020-04-01 153 01 TO 07 01 TO 07 2. DIVERSITY OF BUTTERFLY IN SOUTH DISTRICT OF SIKKIM by 1JOHN BHUTIA AND 2BISHNU K SHARMA <p>Butterflies are the most fascinating insects and valuable pollinator. They are good indicators of climatic conditions and ecological changes in the environment. The present study was carried out to document the butterfly diversity in South District of Sikkim. A total of 50 species of butterflies belonging to 40 genera and six families were recorded. Among the six families, Nymphalidae was the most dominant with 21 species, followed by Lycaenidae and Papilionidae comprising of 6 species each, Riodinidae with 5 species, Hesperiidae with 3 species and Pieridae with 3 species. Among these 50 species, three species were found to be protected under the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, (1972). The present study added some valuable information on butterfly diversity of the study area.</p> Bishnu K Sharma Copyright (c) 2020 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2020-05-01 2020-05-01 153 12 TO 28 12 TO 28 1. CARBON SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF RED SANDER (PTEROCARPUS SANTALINUS) PLANTATIONS UNDER DIFFERENT AGES IN VELLORE AND THIRUVALLUR DISTRICTS OF TAMIL NADU by SEWA SINGH <p>The study was conducted during 2020 at Vellore and Thiruvallur districts of Tamil Nadu that lies between 12°15’ and 13° 15’ of the northern latitude and 78° 20’ and 79° 15’ of the eastern longitude. The soil was red loamy soil and sandy Loamy with the pH of 6.3 to 8.2 and electrical conductivity with 0.08 to 0.80 dS m<sup>-1</sup>. Redsanders (<em>Pterocarpus santalinus</em>) plantation at different age groups, viz., 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 were selected for estimation of carbon sequestration potential.&nbsp; Totally 16 sample plots with the plot size of 0.1 ha (31.62 m X 31.62 m) were laid out in 6 different age group of Redsanders plantation for assessing the biometric attributes, volume, biomass and biomass carbon through Non-destructive sampling method. Among the 6 age group, 60-year-old exhibited the maximum biomass (1186.30 kg/tree and 628.74 tonnes/hectare) and biomass carbon content (557.56 kg. /tree and 295.51 tonnes/hectare) followed by 50-year-old plantation and minimum was recorded in 10-year-old Red Sanders plantation. Due to its high density content, Redsanders tree is considered as suitable for high carbon storage from atmosphere through photosynthesis mechanism. Eventhough, it’s a tree with high value utility and commercial importance, it can also have the maximum potential in carbon sequestration.</p> Sewa singh Copyright (c) 2020 LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS 2020-05-01 2020-05-01 153 01 TO 11 01 TO 11 2. SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF MONOCEPHALIC THORACOPAGUS TETRABRACHIUS TETRAPUS DICAUDATUS MONSTER IN A MURRAH BUFFALO by RAVI DUTT, GYAN SINGH1, RISHIPAL YADAV, PARDEEP DANGI AND GITESH SAINI <p>A conjoint monster with single head (Monocephalic), double thoraxes joined at thoracic region (Thoracopagus), well developed four fore limbs (Tetrabrachius), four hind limbs (Tetrapus) and two separated pelvices with double&nbsp;individual tails (Dicaudatus) was delivered by caesarean section in a Murrah buffalo.</p> RAVI DUTT*, GYAN SINGH1, RISHIPAL YADAV, PARDEEP DANGI AND GITESH SAINI Copyright (c) 0 2020-03-01 2020-03-01 153 15 to 17 15 to 17 1. THE IMPACT OF WATER QUALITY DETERIORATION ON MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES IN THE LAKE TANA, NORTHWESTERN ETHIOPIA-ANALYSIS USING TOLERANCE LEVEL APPROACH by SISAY MISGANAW TAMIRU <p>Lake Tana is a biodiversity reservoir and freshwater supplier that contribut significantly to the economy of Ethiopia and downstream recipient countries (Sudan and Egypt). Due to human activities, water quality and biodiversity of the lake was threatened. Some of the most significant contributors to the lake pollution include domestic sewage, agricultural inputs and outputs, industrial inputs and outputs, silt from the agricultural activity, etc in the catchement. To asses the impact of antropogenic activities of Lake Tana, macroinvertabrates were analysed in dry and wet seasons at 11 sampling sites. In the analysis, litratures indicated that the presence of more Odonata, Coleptera and Hemipteran larvae is the indication of water quality deterioration due pollution. From the collected organisms total numbers of tolerant individuals were 303 (48.2 %) and Facultative individuals were 243 (38.7 %) while intolerant individual organisms were 80 (12.7 %). Most of the taxa (48.2 %) had tolerance scores ranging from 7 to 10. In general, all the sampling stations show the degradation of water quality and thus needs for mitigation measures and management options to save Lake Tana.</p> SISAY MISGANAW TAMIRU Copyright (c) 0 2020-03-01 2020-03-01 153 01 TO 14 01 TO 14 1. MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION USING MTDNA (COI GENE) AND SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF A FORENSIC CALLIPHORIDAE FLY CHRYSOMYA RUFIFACIES (MACQUART 1843) by S.A. BANSODE AND V.R. MORE <p>In forensic entomology insect is used to determine a minimum post-mortem interval (PMI min). A PMI estimation is based either on species specific developmental rates or on succession patterns and species diversity on the carrion. Hence correct species identification is a very important step in forensic entomology. Unfortunately, lack of taxonomist or sufficient keys to identify the species lead to occasional errors in species identification. The eggs or larvae of many forensically important dipteran species are particularly difficult to distinguish morphologically and incorrect identification can seriously harm an investigation. To overcome the limitations of morphology-based identification, molecular identification using mtDNA (COI gene) performed by sequencing fragment of 658 bp of COI gene. This study emphasizes on identification of <em>Ch. rufifacies,</em> one of the forensically important hairy blowfly and a myiasis causing agent.Scanning electron microscopy was performed to observe distinguishing characteristics of <em>Ch. rufifacies</em> like pattern of folding in frontal field, number of anterior spiracles, posterior spiracles, number of tubercles, structure of button, spiracular hair and middle sacrum.</p> V.R. MORE S.A. BANSODE Copyright (c) 0 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 153 01 TO 15 01 TO 15 2. ETHNOBOTANICAL SURVEY OF SOME SACRED GROVES OF PATAN TALUKA OF PATAN DISTRICT, GUJARAT, INDIA by H. M. PATEL AND N. K. PATEL <p>Ethno botanical study was carried out of three sacred groves located in Patan district, Gujarat. Analysis of Plant diversity available within the boundary of the three sacred groves revealed altogether. Plant have been used both in the prevention and cure of various diseases of human and their pets, with the advent of human civilization, many systems of therapy have been developed primarily based on plants. Ayurveda, Homeopathy, Siddha, Unani, etc. The present paper aimed 65 plant species belonging to 38 families documenting of sacred groves. During my research work, we observed and documented three sacred groves are detailed here, Bhaucharmata sacred grove, Sindhavimata temple sacred grove and Hajrat sultan Mohammed haji Rajab (Bawahaji) sacred grove belongs to Patan district.</p> N. K. PATEL H. M. PATEL Copyright (c) 0 2020-01-01 2020-01-01 153 13 TO 27 13 TO 27 1. WOOD ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES OF DALBERGIA SISSOO ROXB. by K. KARIMANISHA1, N.KRISHNAKUMAR2 AND K.T. PARTHIBAN3 <p>Experiments were carried out to identify the anatomical properties viz., Fibre morphology, vessel morphology and derived values from fibre dimensions of <em>Dalbergia sissoo </em>wood samples at different radial positions. There was an increase in anatomical traits from pith to peripheryin this species.&nbsp; There is variations in wood samples among the radial positions (pith, middle and periphery) investigated. Based on the results, <em>Dalbergia sissoo</em> is suitable for furniture making due to the strong fibre characteristics.Hence, this species may be used as furniture making as secondary timber.Hence the species could be exploited for further tree improvement programme.</p> K. KARIMANISHA1, N.KRISHNAKUMAR*2 AND K.T. PARTHIBAN3 Copyright (c) 0 2020-01-01 2020-01-01 153 01 TO 12 01 TO 12 2. STUDY OF CHLOROPHYLL VARIATION “A” AND “B” FROM SELECTED AQUATIC PLANTS by Dr. A.J. PARMAR <p>Chlorophyll a, b, c, d, Carotene, Xanthophylls are present in all higher plants. Then chlorophyll a and b are most important for plants. Make extract of chlorophyll in 80% acetone and estimate by spectrophotometer in Optical Density. Chlorophyll a and b are measured in amount of mg/mL. Chlorophyll is estimate of hydrophytes plants in <em>Ammannia</em>&nbsp;<em>baccifera</em>&nbsp;L.<em>, Eichhornia</em>&nbsp;<em>crassipes</em>&nbsp;(Mart.) Solms<em>, Hydrilla</em>&nbsp;<em>verticillata</em>&nbsp;(L.f.)Royle<em>, Nymphaea</em>&nbsp;<em>pubescens</em>&nbsp;Willd, <em>Bacopa</em>&nbsp;<em>monnieri</em>&nbsp;(L.) Wettst. and <em>Typha</em>&nbsp;<em>angustifolia</em>&nbsp;L. The range of chlorophyll contains are 1.9826 to 6.9220 mg/mL for chlorophyll a and 2.6598 to 10.7774 mg/mL for chlorophyll b<em>. </em>Concentration of chlorophyll a and b was calculated using Arnon method. Chlorophyll content was higher in <em>Nymphaea</em>&nbsp;<em>pubescens</em>&nbsp;than other Aquatic plants.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dr.A.J. PARMAR Copyright (c) 0 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 153 15 TO 18 15 TO 18 1. POTENTIAL NON WOOD FOREST PRODUCTS FOR FOOD SECURITY AND LIVELIHOOD SUPPORT IN BASTAR DISTRICT OF CHHATTISGARH STATE by SAJIWAN KUMAR <p>The role of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) in rural livelihoods and forest conservation is widely debated. The perception of the forest as a ‘safety net’ or a ‘poverty trap’ for rural poor and the validity of the ‘conservation by commercialization’ hypothesis are currently receiving attention from research institutions, development agencies and international non-governmental organizations. The present study was carried out in the Bastar region, southern part of Chhattisgarh state. Biological diversity as well as cultural diversity of this region directly influenced the whole life of local community is famous not only in India but also overall world.&nbsp;&nbsp; Livelihood systems in this region are complex, primarily dependent on Agriculture and forest (including NWFPs, Medicinal drugs, etc.), agricultural labour and village artisans. It is more important that the problems of the people of disadvantaged regions like rainfed, hilly and tribal areas be addressed through imparting new skills to the poor and building up durable income generating assets and capacity to adapt to rapidly changing markets.</p> <p>In Bastar, the forest is a vital asset in everyday life and food security of the rural population. Recently, the market for commercial NWFPs creating income-generating opportunities for rural people has received increasing research and development attention. However, knowledge about forest, people and market relations are still limited and this is a problem for current development and conservation efforts. The study was conducted in Lohandiguda block of Bastar district, during the study; I have surveyed ten villages to fulfill the objectives of study. Study suggested alternate sources of income to the villagers to improve their socio-economic conditions as well as increasing the income level and employment opportunities by effective collection and marketing of non-timber forest product and the same time making villagers come forward for forest protection.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> SAJIWAN KUMAR Copyright (c) 0 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 153 01 TO 14 01 TO 14 DOUBLING FARMER’S INCOME- ISSUES AND CHALLENGES IN EGG PRODUCTION by MANJARI PANDEY <p>Poultry sector is one of the continuously and fastest growing sector in India. The growth in field of egg production is around 6%; in broiler production about 10% and the overall poultry population growth is 5%. Annual turnover from poultry section is round about Rs. 900 billion. Directly and indirectly this sector provides employment to over 6 million. The share of poultry sector in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is approximately 1% and 11.70% in the livestock GDP. According to the 19<sup>th</sup> Livestock census, 2012 total poultry population in India is 729.2 million showing an increase of 12.39% over the previous census. The share of broiler, layer, backyard poultry, duck and others in total poultry population is 38.7%, 29.4%, 29.8%, 0.68% and 1.43% respectively. Poultry sector in India can be broadly divided into two sub-sectors i.e. commercial sector (about 80% of the total market share) and backyard poultry (about 20% of the total market share). The annual per capita availability has increased from 7 eggs in 1961 to 69 eggs 2016-17 (BAH&amp;FS, 2017).&nbsp; However, the present availability levels are still far below the ICMR recommendations of 180 eggs per capita per annum.</p> MANJARI PANDEY Copyright (c) 0 2019-11-01 2019-11-01 153 10 TO 15 10 TO 15 PLANTING TIME AND CHEMICALS RESPONSE ON FLOWERING AND CORM PRODUCTION OF GLADIOLUS (GLADIOLUS GRANDIFLORUS L.) CV. URMI by M. RAJA NAIK1, VENKATA SATISH KUCHI2 <p>The present investigation was carried out to study the effect of different planting times and chemicals on flowering and yield parameters of gladiolus cv. Urmi. The results revealed that, among multiple treatments, 3<sup>rd</sup> week of October, 2014 planting (P<sub>1</sub>) significantly increased flowering, quality and yield attributes as compared to other planting times <em>viz</em>., 3<sup>rd</sup> week of November (P<sub>2</sub> ), 3<sup>rd</sup> week of December (P<sub>3</sub> ) and 3<sup>rd</sup> week of January, 2015 (P<sub>4</sub> ). While in case of chemicals, 150 ppm GA<sub>3</sub> (C<sub>3</sub>) had significant effect on flowering, quality and yield attributes as compared to control (C<sub>0</sub>). In interaction, the treatment combination i.e. corms treated with GA<sub>3</sub> @ 150 ppm and corms planted during 3<sup>rd</sup> week of October, 2014 (P<sub>1</sub> C<sub>3</sub> ) was the best with respect to flowering and yield characters of gladiolus cv. Urmi.</p> M. RAJA NAIK1 VENKATA SATISH KUCHI2 Copyright (c) 0 2019-11-01 2019-11-01 153 01 TO 09 01 TO 09 2. Article- ISOZYMES A DIAGNOSTIC BIO-MARKERS OF ANIMAL DISEASES by M. J. SANAP1 AND N. Z. GAIKWAD1 <p>Now a days, a trend is emerging to conduct certain biochemical investigations, which could reveal predisposition to specific disease processes in clinically healthy animals, particularly the canines. The clinicians can then suggest preventive measures accordingly.</p> <p>&nbsp;Therefore, Isoenzymes are at most important which can be detected and their raised concentration is helping in detecting the severity of tissue damage in animals.</p> <p>Isoenzymes are molecules that catalyse the same reaction may differ from one another in many ways, ranging from small variations in secondary structure to broad differences in amino acid sequence and molecular weight.</p> <p>Considering the significance of isoenzymes and their characteristics, many physician use these isoenzymes. These are basically protein in nature or protein catalysts, some of which enter the serum from damaged tissues. Because of their nature of catalysts, they are more easily detected than many other substances.</p> <p>Amylase released from the diseased Pancreas and phosphatase released from several tissues those have been studied for many years and have established the usefulness of serum enzyme tests. Unfortunately, many of the best studied and easily detected enzymes occur in more than one organ. Furthermore, some organs like liver and skeletal muscle containing higher concentrations of many enzymes leading to a confusion in diagnosis based on determination of enzyme activity.</p> <p>Specific enzymes and their isoenzymes are often recognized by their specific receptors on the cell surface of target tissues.&nbsp; Therefore,&nbsp; isoenzymes including Alanine aminotransferses (ALT),&nbsp; Aspartate aminotransferases (AST), Sorbitol dehydrogenase(SDH),&nbsp; Gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Amylase, Creatine kinase and Lactate dehydrogenase have been focused while diagnosing various diseases in animals.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> M. J. SANAP1 AND N. Z. GAIKWAD1 Copyright (c) 0 2019-10-01 2019-10-01 153 05 TO 16 05 TO 16 1. Case Report-PROSPEROUS HANDLING OF DYSTOCIA IN CHINKARA (GAZELLA BENNETTI) BY CAESAREAN SECTION by SHAHID ALI, AIJAZ ALI CHANNA AND USMAN MEHMOOD <p>Current case of Dystocia was successfully handled by caesarean section in the Chinkara. Incomplete cervical dilation was the cause of the dystocia. Handling of dystocia includes aided vaginal delivery, fetotomy and caesarean section. In existing case, successfully handled the dystocia by caesarean section. Animal was managed by anaesthesia, fluid therapy and supportive therapy during procedure.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> SHAHID ALI*, AIJAZ ALI CHANNA AND USMAN MEHMOOD Copyright (c) 0 2019-10-01 2019-10-01 153 01 TO 04 01 TO 04 2. STUDY OF MARINE MOLLUSCS AT KOLIYAK COAST by SHUCHI BHATT1AND SRINIVASAN M2 <p>The present study is based on the diversity of molluscan at Koliyak coast. The study site is placed on the Bhavnagar coast. Mollusc plays an important role in the marine ecosystem. A intend of this study to obtain baseline data of Koliyak coast. During investigation total of six molluscs.</p> SHUCHI BHATT1*AND SRINIVASAN M2 Copyright (c) 0 2019-09-01 2019-09-01 153 12 TO 16 12 TO 16 1. MATHEMATICAL INTERPRETATION OF AESTHETIC VALUE OF FLORAL STRUCTURE AND MODE OF POLLINATION IN SOME ANGIOSPERM PLANTS by SNEHA BALAKRISHNAN1, SREELAKSHMI KUTTIKOD1, SURESH KUMAR K.A.2 AND PRASANTH G. NARASIMHA-SHEN <p>The beauty of the flower can be quantified through golden ratio analysis.&nbsp; Objects with shape which is in golden ratio seem to be more attractive. Compared to anemophilous flowers, entomophilous flowers are more attractive to perform the function of inviting the pollinators.&nbsp; If length to breadth ratio of petals in a flower is very much nearer to the golden ratio, then that flower will be more attractive and vice-versa and sample survey studies have been substantiated this fact.&nbsp; It was found that the ``closeness'' of length to breadth ratio of petals to golden ratio is an indication of the range of beauty of flowers.</p> SNEHA BALAKRISHNAN1, SREELAKSHMI KUTTIKOD1, SURESH KUMAR K.A. PRASANTH G. NARASIMHA-SHENOI3 Copyright (c) 0 2019-09-01 2019-09-01 153 01 TO 11 01 TO 11 2. ADDITIONS TO THE PTERIDOPHYTIC FLORA OF UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE SITE, GREAT HIMALAYAN NATIONAL PARK, KULLU, HIMACHAL PRADESH, WESTERN HIMALAYA by KAPIL KHARKWAL 1, SANTOSH NAUTIYAL1,RAJNI KANT1, KUMAR AMBRISH1 etc. <p>The present study was conducted in the UNESCO declared world heritage site, the&nbsp; Great Himalayan National Park (GHNP), Kullu, Himachal Pradesh (India), during the years 2016-2018. The surveys resulted in additions of 14 new species of Pteridophytes belonging to 11genera under 07 families. The information related to the distributional status, habitat and an altitudinal ranges are also provided.</p> KAPIL KHARKWAL 1, SANTOSH NAUTIYAL1, RAJNI KANT*1, KUMAR AMBRISH1 AND B.K. SINHA2 Copyright (c) 0 2019-08-01 2019-08-01 153 09 TO 16 09 TO 16 3. ANALYSIS OF TREND IN AREA, PRODUCTION AND PRODUCTIVITY OF COTTON CROP IN THREE DISTRICTS OF NORTHERN TELANGANA ZONE by A.SREENIVAS, D.SRINIVASA CHARY AND K.SUPRIYA <p>Attempts have been made to examine the trends and forecasting in area, production and productivity of Cotton crop in three districts of Northern Telangana Zone. Linear and compound growth rates were calculated for this purpose. Ten growth models were fitted to the area, production and productivity of Cotton crop and best- fitted model for future projection was chosen based upon least Residual Mean Square (RMS) and significant Adj &nbsp;Besides, the important assumption of randomness of residuals was tested using one sample run test. The reference period of study was from 1979-80 to 2012-13 and it was carried out in three districts of Northern Telangana Zone.</p> A.SREENIVAS, D.SRINIVASA CHARY AND K.SUPRIYA Copyright (c) 0 2019-08-01 2019-08-01 153 17 TO 33 17 TO 33 1. ETHNOMEDICINAL USES OF SOME PLANTS OF MORACEAE AND SOLANACEAE FAMILY OF MORACEAE AND SOLANACEAE FAMILY OF HAMIRPUR DISTRICT IN HIMACHAL PRADESH by SURENDRA KUMAR GODARA,NITESH KUMAR, POORNIMA KUMARI ANDSONU RAM <p>An ethanobotanical survey was carried out among the local people of Hamirpur district of Himachal Pradesh. A total of 16 plant species&nbsp;&nbsp; (belonging to 2 families: Solanaceae and Moraceae) of ethanomedicinal interest upon enquiry from this area informants between the ages of 45 to 75 years were reported. It is interesting to note that a single plant species finds use for treatment of a wide spectrum of health disorders in traditional and folk medicine. Employment of techniques such as cell and tissue culture would provide means of rapid propagation and conservation of the plant species and, from the point of view of phytochemistry, give scope for enhancement of the quality and quantity of the bioactive secondary metabolites occurring in plant.</p> SURENDRA KUMAR GODARA, NITESH KUMAR, POORNIMA KUMARI AND SONU RAM Copyright (c) 0 2019-08-01 2019-08-01 153 01 TO 08 01 TO 08 5. POTENCIAL USE OF AJWAIN AS HERBAL PREPRATION IN POULTRY FEED by ANURAG1 AND SARITA KUMARI 2 <p>India ranks 3<sup>rd</sup> in the world production of eggs and 5<sup>th</sup> in the production of chicken. The poultry sector provides livelihood to nearly one lakh farmers, directly and employment to about 1.5 million persons indirectly and contributes Rs. 7,500 crores to the national income (Anonymous, 2014). The poultry sector is one of the rare examples of socio-economic development, which attained its present advanced stage without much international aid and investments from the Five-Year-Plans. Poultry farming has become a remunerative business and pre-eminence over all other livestock enterprises in the developing countries.</p> ANURAG1* AND SARITA KUMARI 2 Copyright (c) 0 2019-06-28 2019-06-28 153 45 TO 48 45 TO 48 4. PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL STUDY OF KESHKAL VALLEY, KONDAGAON DISTRICT IN CHHATTISGARH by SAJIWAN KUMAR <p>The species composition, abundance, density and frequency were studied in tropical dry deciduous forests of Keshkal Valley of Kondagaon district of Bastar division of Chhattisgarh state.&nbsp; The district Kondagaon is marked with hills and hillocks, dense forested areas, high altitude, hot summer, metamorphic calcareous rocks and tropical dry deciduous monsoon vegetation. Phytosociological analysis was based on the data generated&nbsp;from the sample plots laid at random covering with entire valley area. &nbsp;Quadrates of 10m× 10m size for trees and 1m ×1m for shrubs were laid down in the total area of 487.674 km<sup>2</sup>. Total of 401 species were enumerated from the sampled quadrates.&nbsp;The species present as per preponderance are trees 221, herbs and shrubs 180. These statistics gives composition of the forest, and&nbsp;information on the diversity of the communities as a whole provided a better insight into the state of the forests in the Keshkal Valley. Phytosociological characters such as frequency, density and abundance were influenced by the climatic, anthropogenic and biotic stresses prevailing at the study sites. All the species present at the study sites have shown maximum values of frequency, density and abundance in rainy season in comparison of summer and winter seasons.</p> SAJIWAN KUMAR Copyright (c) 0 2019-07-01 2019-07-01 153 33 TO 44 33 TO 44 3. FLORA OF CHHINDWARA DISTRICT WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ETHNOBOTANY by UMESH KUMAR DHURWE1 AND RAJESH KUMAR DIWAN2 <p>This paper deals with the various wild and cultivated plants play a key role among tribal cultures in primary health care and this relationship has been continuing from one generation to another since last several centuries. The herbal healers of these region use plant/plant parts of their suitable preparation for treating various ailment. Information collected from traditional tribal healers, medicine men etc has revealed that plant/plant parts of 36 species from Chhindwara district of forest origin are utilized as, powder, juice, decoction and paste for the treatment of various diseases of local people of the area. Medicinal plants are often, the only accessible health care alternative for most of the population and traditional medicines are integral part of tribal health care.</p> UMESH KUMAR DHURWE1 AND RAJESH KUMAR DIWAN2 Copyright (c) 0 2019-07-01 2019-07-01 153 25 TO 32 25 TO 32 2. SACRED GROVES -CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY THROUGH TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE- A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED AREAS OF MANDVI TEHSIL OF KACHCHH DISTRICT, GUJARAT by GADHAVI, CHETAN D.1 AND MEHTA, P.K.2 <p>Biodiversity is an umbrella term uses for all living organism on this planet. It includes different animals and plants, birds and microorganism, their gens, their habitats and the entire ecosystem. In today’s era over increasing population, uses of no-renewable energy sources and various kinds’ pollution have harmed the nature well. Furthermore habitat alteration, over exploitation, introduction of exotic species has also threaded the global biologically resources. Sacred groves are the fine example of in-situ conservation of biodiversity. The sacred grove are tracts of virgin forest with rich biodiversity, which have been protected by local people for the centuries for their culture and religious belief and taboos that the deities resides in them and protected the villagers from different calamities.&nbsp; Sacred grove acts as an ideal center for biodiversity conservation. Various plants and animals that are threatened in the forest are still well conserved in some of sacred patches. It has been found that some several medicinal plants and are not to be observed in forest are abundant in sacred groves. Due to our religious value, mythological value and taboo play a significant role in promoting sustainable utilization and conservation of flora and fauna of the region. This present Paper deals with the information of sacred groves and total 14 sacred groves were recorded from various location of Mandvi tehsil of Kachchhh district, India.</p> GADHAVI, CHETAN D.1 AND MEHTA, P.K.2 Copyright (c) 0 2019-07-01 2019-07-01 153 14 TO 24 14 TO 24 1. STUDY OF SELECTED CAMPUS FLORA OF MANDVI TOWN OF KACHCHH DISTRICT, GUJARAT, INDIA by KACHHOT, JAY J.1, MEGHNATHI, DHRUV H.2, CHUDASAMA, NILESH N.3, NAKRANI, UDIT A.4 AND MEHTA, P.K.5 <p>Floral diversity is one of the most popular terms in conservation of biodiversity. Documentation of floral status of an existing area is very important in terms of future conservation plan. Now a day, urban ecology becomes the umbrella term which includes flora and fauna of cities, villages, public domestic, botanical gardens, unused agricultural land, road side areas, campus of Government offices, schools, colleges and Institutes. These urban ecosystems have great importance as they support multiple ecosystems. The present piece of work deals with campus flora of two ITI institutes and one Government office viz. Government Science College, ITI institute and magistrate office. The selected study covers approximately 14 acre area of land. Total 71 plant species of 66 genera belonging to 39 families have been recorded from the selected study area. All the collected plant species documented and arranged systematically. The present study provides the floristic status of selected study area which can be useful in the future of cultivation and conservation of urban ecosystem of the area.</p> KACHHOT, JAY J.1, MEGHNATHI, DHRUV H.2, CHUDASAMA, NILESH N.3, NAKRANI, UDIT A.4 MEHTA, P.K.5 Copyright (c) 0 2019-07-01 2019-07-01 153 1 TO 13 1 TO 13 4. BUTTERFLY (INSECTA- LEPIDOPTERA- RHOPALOCERA) DIVERSITY OF COMBINED CAMPUS OF ZOOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA, BOTANICAL SURVEY OF INDIA AND ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA, DEHRADUN, UTTARAKHAND, INDIA by SHIVANI SHA <p>The present study was carried out on the diversity of butterflies in the combined campus of&nbsp; Zoological Survey of India, Botanical Survey of India and Anthropological Survey of India, Dehradun, Uttarakhand. The butterflies were observed in the field from November 2018 to March 2019. Total 67 species of 46 genera under five families i.e., Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae, Lycaenidae, and Hesperiidae were recorded. The maximum diversity of species was found in the family Nymphalidae (31species), followed by Lycaenidae (13 species), Pieridae (11 species), Papilionidae (8 species), and Hesperiidae (4 species). Analysis of the relative abundance revealed that of these 67 species, 28 species were common (42%), 23 less common (23%), and remaining 16 species uncommon (24%).</p> SHIVANI SHARMA1 NARENDER SHARMA2 Copyright (c) 0 2019-06-01 2019-06-01 153 30 TO 43 30 TO 43