2. Article- ISOZYMES A DIAGNOSTIC BIO-MARKERS OF ANIMAL DISEASES by M. J. SANAP1 AND N. Z. GAIKWAD1
Now a days, a trend is emerging to conduct certain biochemical investigations, which could reveal predisposition to specific disease processes in clinically healthy animals, particularly the canines. The clinicians can then suggest preventive measures accordingly.
Therefore, Isoenzymes are at most important which can be detected and their raised concentration is helping in detecting the severity of tissue damage in animals.
Isoenzymes are molecules that catalyse the same reaction may differ from one another in many ways, ranging from small variations in secondary structure to broad differences in amino acid sequence and molecular weight.
Considering the significance of isoenzymes and their characteristics, many physician use these isoenzymes. These are basically protein in nature or protein catalysts, some of which enter the serum from damaged tissues. Because of their nature of catalysts, they are more easily detected than many other substances.
Amylase released from the diseased Pancreas and phosphatase released from several tissues those have been studied for many years and have established the usefulness of serum enzyme tests. Unfortunately, many of the best studied and easily detected enzymes occur in more than one organ. Furthermore, some organs like liver and skeletal muscle containing higher concentrations of many enzymes leading to a confusion in diagnosis based on determination of enzyme activity.
Specific enzymes and their isoenzymes are often recognized by their specific receptors on the cell surface of target tissues. Therefore, isoenzymes including Alanine aminotransferses (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferases (AST), Sorbitol dehydrogenase(SDH), Gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Amylase, Creatine kinase and Lactate dehydrogenase have been focused while diagnosing various diseases in animals.