4. PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL STUDY OF KESHKAL VALLEY, KONDAGAON DISTRICT IN CHHATTISGARH by SAJIWAN KUMAR
The species composition, abundance, density and frequency were studied in tropical dry deciduous forests of Keshkal Valley of Kondagaon district of Bastar division of Chhattisgarh state. The district Kondagaon is marked with hills and hillocks, dense forested areas, high altitude, hot summer, metamorphic calcareous rocks and tropical dry deciduous monsoon vegetation. Phytosociological analysis was based on the data generated from the sample plots laid at random covering with entire valley area. Quadrates of 10m× 10m size for trees and 1m ×1m for shrubs were laid down in the total area of 487.674 km2. Total of 401 species were enumerated from the sampled quadrates. The species present as per preponderance are trees 221, herbs and shrubs 180. These statistics gives composition of the forest, and information on the diversity of the communities as a whole provided a better insight into the state of the forests in the Keshkal Valley. Phytosociological characters such as frequency, density and abundance were influenced by the climatic, anthropogenic and biotic stresses prevailing at the study sites. All the species present at the study sites have shown maximum values of frequency, density and abundance in rainy season in comparison of summer and winter seasons.