This work is a brief review of the nitrogen pools of the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle which gets disrupted due to anthropogenic perturbations with activities like biomass burning, fossil fuel burning, and the major nitrogen fixed due to human induced land use activities such as growing more varieties of nitrogen fixing plants and excessive fertilizer input due to increasing food demand. Such activities and waste disposal have potential to create pollution and modify climate. The change in the demography of the world will surely pressurize us to produce more food and thus usage of more fertilizers; hence more alterations in the said terrestrial nitrogen pools resulting in disruption of biogeochemical N cycling leading to climate change in global context.

KEY WORDS: Terrestrial Nitrogen, Nitrogen Pool, Anthropogenic activities, Human Systems, Nitrogen oxides, Biomass burning, Fossil fuel combustion, Climate change.


Bhatt M.S. (2014). A study on terrestrial nitrogencycle in India. Scholar’s press. pp 143.
Bouwman, A.F. (1990). (ed.). Introduction. In: Soils and the greenhouse effect, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, New York, pp. 25-28.
Canfield D.E., Glazer A.N., Falkowski P.G. (2010. The evolution and future of Earth’s Nitrogen cycle. Science, 330(6001), pp. 192-196. DOI: 10.1126/science.1186120.
Cassman K.G., Dobermann A., Walters D.T. (2002). Agro-ecosystems, Nitrogenuse efficiency, and Nitrogen management. Ambio, 31(2), pp. 132-140.
Crutzen, P.J., Heidt, L.E., Krasnec, J.P., Pollock, W.H. and Seiler, W. (1979). Biomass burning as a source of atmospheric gases CO, H2, N2O, NO, CH3Cl and COS. Nature, 282: 253-256.
Delaune, R.D., Patrick, W.H., Lindau, C.W. and Smith, C.J. (1990). Nitrous Oxide and methane emission from gulf coast wet lands. In Soils and the greenhouse effect. Ed. Bouwman A.F., John Weiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester: pp. 497-501.
Delwiche, C.C. (1970). The Nitrogen Cycle. Scientific American, 223(3): 136-147.
DJ Van de Kaa–Birth (2002). The Idea of a Second Demographic Transition in Industrialized Countries. Paper presented at the Sixth Welfare Policy Seminar of the National Institute of population and Social Security, Tokyo, Japan.
Egmond, K. van, Bresser, T., Bouwman, L. (2002). The European NitrogenCase. Ambio, 31(2): 72-78.
Fixen P.E. and West FB. (2002). Nitrogen Fertilizers: Meeting contemporary challenges. Ambio: a journal of the human environment, 31(2): pp. 169-176.
Galbally, I.E. and Gillette, R.W. (1988). Processes regulating nitrogen compounds in the tropical atmosphere. In Rodhe, H. & Herrera, R., Acidification in tropical countries, SCOPE 36, Wiley & Sons, New York.
Galloway, J. N. and Cowling, E.B. (2002). Reactive Nitrogen and The World: 200 Years of change. Ambio, 31(2): 64-71.
Galloway, J.N., Cowling, E. B., Seitzinger, S. P. and Socolow, R. H. (2002). Reactive Nitrogen: Too much of a good thing? Ambio, 31(2): 60-63.
Galloway J.N. and Melillo J.M. (1998). (eds). Asian change in the context of global climate change, IGBP publication series, Cambridge University Press, 363p.
Galloway, J. N, Schlesinger W. H., Levy H.L. II., Michaels A. and. Schnoor, J. L.(1995). Nitrogen fixation: Anthropogenic enhancement-environmental response. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 9: 235-252.
Galloway, J.N., H. Levy II, P.S. Kasibhatla. (1994). Year 2020: Consequences of population growth and development on deposition of oxidized nitrogen. Ambio. 23: pp. 120-123.
Gruber N. and Galloway J.N. (2008) An Earth-system perspective of the global nitrogen cycle. Nature, 451, pp. 293-296. doi:10.1038/nature06592.
Howarth, R.W., Billen G. , Swaney D., Townsend A., Jaworski N., Lajtha K., Downing J.A., Elmgren R, Caraco N., Jordan T., Burendse F., Freney J., Kudeyrarov V., Murdoch P., Zhao-liang Z. (1996). Regional nitrogen budgets and riverine N and P fluxes for the drainage to the North Atlantic Ocean: Natural and human influences. Biogeochem. 35:181-226.
Jetten M. S. M. (2008). The microbial nitrogen cycle. Environmental Microbiology, 10(11), pp. 2903-2909.
Khalil M.A. and Rasmussen R.A. (1983). Increase and seasonal cycles of nitrous oxide in the earth’s atmosphere. Tellus, 35B: 161-169.
Lin, B., Shibasaki, R., Goto, N., Sakoda, A. and Suzuki, M. (1999). Establishing a Global Nitrogen/ Carbon Cycle Model: Nitrogen Storage in Terrestrial Vegetation under Present Climate. Proceedings of 1999 NIES Workshop on Information Bases and Modeling for Land Use and Cover Change Studies in East Asia, (ed. Otusubo, K), pp. 213-221, Tsukuba, JAPAN (Jan. 25-27, 1999) http://www.cger.nies.go.jp/lugec/proceedings/31
Liu J., Dietz T., Carpenter S.R., Folke C., Alberti M., Redman C.L., Schneider S.H., Ostrom E., Pell A.N., Lubchenco J., Taylor W.W., Ouyang Z., Deadman P., Kratz T. and Provencher W. (2007). Coupled human and natural systems. Ambio, 36(8), pp. 639-649.
Mackenzie, F.T. and Mackenzie, J.A. (1995). Our changing planet: An introduction to earth system science and global environmental change, 387 pp. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Mackenzie, F.T., Ver, L.M., Sabine, C., Lane, M., and Lerman, A. (1993). C, N, P, S global biogeochemical cycles and modeling of global change. In Interactions of C, N, P and S Biogeochemical Cycle and global change, ed. Wollast R., Mackenzie, F.T., Chou L. ,pp 1-62.Berlin:Springer-Verlag.
Matson P., Lohse K.A., Hall S.J.(2002). The globalization of nitrogen deposition: consequences for terrestrial Ecosystems. Ambio: A journal of human environment 31(2): 113-119.
McNeill A. and Unkovich M. (2007). The Nitrogen cycle in terrestrial ecosystems. Nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems soil biology, 10, pp. 37-64.
Nixon, S. W., Granger, S.L., Nowicki, B.L. (1995). An assessment of the annual mass balance of Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in Narragansett Bay. Biogeochemistry, 31: 15-61.
Ojima D.S. and Rosswall T. (1990). Considerations for studying global change effects relative to terrestrial ecosystem. In Soils and the greenhouse effect. Ed. Bouwman A.F., John Weiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester: pp. 365-373.
Robertson P.G. and Rosswall, T. (1986). Nitrogen in West Africa: The Regional Cycle. Ecological Monographs, 56(1):43-72.
Rosswall, T. (1983). The Nitrogen Cycle. In ‘The major biogeochemical cycles and their interactions’. Bolin B. and Cook R.B. (eds.), SCOPE 21, John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 46-50.
Schlesinger W.H. (2008). On the fate of anthropogenic Nitrogen. Proceedings of national academy of sciences of the united states of America, 106(1),pp. 203–208, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0810193105
Simpson, H. J., Broecker, W.S., Garrels, R.M., Gessel, S.P., Holland, H.D., Holser, W.T., Junge, C., Kaplan, I.R., Mc Elroy, M.B., Michaelis, W., Mopper, K., Schidlowski, M., Seiler, W., Steele, J.H., Wofsy, S.C, and Wollast, R.F. (1977). Man and the Global Nitrogen cycle: Group report. In: Global Chemical cycles and their alterations by Man (ed. Stumm W.), Berlin: Dahlem Konferenzen, pp 253-274.
Singh B.K., Bardgett R.D., Smith P. and Reay D.S. (2010). Microorganisms and climate change: terrestrial feedbacks and mitigation options. Nature Reviews Microbiology, (8) pp. 779-790. Doi: 10.1038/nrmicro2439
Smil, V., (1999). Nitrogen in crop production: An account of global flows. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 13:647-662.
Smil, V., (2002). Nitrogen and food production: proteins for human diets. Ambio, 31(2): 120-125.
Soderlund, R. and B. H. Svensson (1976). The global nitrogen cylce. In: B. Svensson & R. Soderlund (Ed) Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur Global Cycles, SCOPE 7, Ecol. Bull., 22, (pp. 23-73) J. Wiley, N.Y.C.
Southgate D. (2009). Population Growth, increases in agricultural production and trends in food prices. The electronic journal of sustainable development. 1(3), pp. 29-35.
Townsend, A.R., B.H. Braswell, E.A. Holland and Penner, J.E. (1996). Spatial and temporal patterns in terrestrial carbon storage due to deposition of anthropogenic nitrogen. Ecological Applications, 6(3): 806-814.
Tripathi S.K.(2014). Perturbations in Global Nitrogen Cycle - Causes and Consequences: A Review. International Journal of Environmental Sciences, 3(1) Pp. 5-10
Townsend A.R., Howarth R.W., Bazzaz F.A., Booth M.S., Cleveland C.C., Collinge S.K., Dobson A.P., Epstein P.R., Holland E.A., Keeney D., Mallin M.A., Rogers C.A., Wayne P. and Wolfe A.H. (2003). Human health effects of a changing global nitrogen cycle. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 240(5), 240-246.
Vitousek, P.M., Aber, J.D., Howarth, R.W., Likens, G.E., Matson, P.A., Schindler, D.W., Schlesinger, W.H., and Tilman, G.D. (1997). Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: causes and consequences. Issues in Ecology, 1: pp.1-15.
Vitousek, P.M., Hattenschwiler, S., Olander, L. and Allison, S. (2002). Nitrogen and Nature. Ambio, 31(2): 97-101.
Zheng X., Fu C., Xu X, Yan X., Huang Y., Han S., Hu F., and Chen G.(2002). The Asian nitrogen cycle case study. Ambio, 31(2): pp. 79-87.
How to Cite
A.B.VORA***, MEGHA BHATT*, V.K. DADHWAL** AND. TERRESTRIAL NITROGEN POOL ALTERATIONS IN TERMS OF ITS INTERACTIONS WITH HUMAN SYSTEMS: A REVIEW. LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS, [S.l.], v. 59, dec. 2014. ISSN 0976-1098. Available at: <http://petsd.org/ojs/index.php/lifesciencesleaflets/article/view/211>. Date accessed: 20 sep. 2017.


Terrestrial Nitrogen, Nitrogen Pool, Anthropogenic activities, Human Systems, Nitrogen oxides, Biomass burning, Fossil fuel combustion, Climate change.