4. CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ON WATER RESOURCE OF AFGHAN PART AMU RIVER BASIN by MOHAMMAD DAWOD SHIRZAD1 AND HITESH ARVINDBHAI SOLANKI2
Following three decades, political climate change, unrest and civil war, Afghanistan faces many different environmental problems; mainly water is a serious problem nationwide. Because of Afghanistan’s innate landlocked country, virtually all major Afghanistan’s rivers drain off into riparian neighbouring countries. According to the UNEP post-conflict environment Assessment report on Afghanistan, where as the country as a whole uses less than one-third of its water potential 75000 million cubic meters. Due to water scarcity, damaged water infrastructure systems during long term climate change and civil war in urban and rural areas, water is a major and important problem, especially in Afghan part Amu river basin. Afghan part Amu river basin is divided into three categories, mountainous area, the area where using of water is with more cost and the plat areas. The 3ed category is more affected in the recent climate change, many hundred hectare land has destructed in the unseasonal flood, caused by rapid melting of glaciers during the year. In general Afghan part of the Amu river basin is located in the upstream part of the Amu river basin. In the recent climate change in Afghan part Amu river basin as a result of drought in (1999-2003) in Afghanistan specially in the Amu river basin degraded widespread natural resources: lowered water tables, dried up wetlands, eroded land, depleted wildlife populations and denuded forests. Excessive extraction of water for agriculture proposes combined with long term drought has led to drastic declines in water resources and absolutely Amu’s Environment is under the great pressures.
KEYWORDS: Amu river, Glaciers, Climate Change, Water Resources.