Status of macronutrients (N, P and K) in some selected tea growing soils of Sivasagar district of Assam, India.
Soil macronutrients (N,P, and K) are essential to tea plants. The excessive application of commercial N, P, and K fertilizers on soil to high yield of tea can be increase the potentially hazardous element into the field, which has been cited as a source of contamination of surface and ground water. In this study, thirty composite soil samples were randomly collected from the top soil (0-20 cm) in some selected tea growing soils from the ten tea estates in Sivasagar district. The samples were analyzed for physio-chemical properties and total concentration of N, P and K. Soil textures were classified as sandy clay loam, sandy loam and sandy clay. The PH ranged from 4.28 to 5.36. The total organic matter content ranged from 2.18 to 3.12 % with mean value of 2.71 %. The nitrogen ranged from 0.124 to 0.242 mg/kg with a mean value of 0.179 mg/kg, phosphorus ranged from 43.56 to 154.38 mg/kg with a mean value of 103.06 mg/kg and potassium ranged from 2.32 to 3.08 meq/kg with a mean value of 2.66 meq/kg. Soil samples were found sufficient amount of total organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium. Significance positive correlations were found to exist between PH, organic matter content and clay with total N, P and K status of soil under study.
Almasri, M.N. and Kaluarchchi, J.J. 2004. Assessment of and management of long-term nitrate pollution of ground water in agriculture dominated watersheds, Journal of Hydrology, 295(1): 225-245.
Baruah, T.C and Borthakur, H.P. 1997. In: A textbook of soil chemical analysis, Vikash Publishing, New
Bouyoucos, G.J. 1962. Hydrometer Method improved for making particle size Analysis of Soil-Agron. J, 54, pp 464.
Cabrera, C. Artacho, R. and GimÃ©nez, R. 2006. "Beneficial effects of green tea--a review". Journal of the American College of Nutrition 25 (2): 79â€“99. doi:10.1080/07315724.2006.10719518. PMID 16582024.edit
Chauhan, J.S. 2001. Fertility status of soils of Birla Panchayat Samiti of Jodhpur district (Rajasthan. M.Sc. (Ag.) Thesis, MPUAT,Udaipur.
Chen, Y., He, B.H., Zhao, X.L. and Zhang, L. 2010. Effect of soil erosion and water loss in Farmland on water eutrophication in Xiaojiang River Basin, Journal of Soil and Water Consevtion, 24: 31-43.
Colleen Taylor, Sen. 2004. Food Culture in India. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-313-32487-1.
Costa, L.M. Gouveia, S.T. Nobrega, J.A. 2002. Comparison of heating extraction procedures for Al, Ca, Mg and Mn in tea samples. Ann Sci, 18:313â€“318.
"Fluoride in Tea". I-sis.org.uk. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
Fung, K. F. Zhang, Z. Q. Wong, J. W. C. Wong, M. H. 1999. "Fluoride contents in tea and soil from tea plantations and the release of fluoride into tea liquor during infusion". Environmental Pollution, 104 (2): 197. doi:10.1016/S0269-7491(98)00187-0.edit
Graham, H .N 1992. "Green tea composition, consumption, and polyphenol chemistry". Preventive medicine 21 (3): 334â€“50. PMID 1614995.
Gupta, P.K . 2007. Method in Environmental analysis of water, soil and air. Second Edition, Agrobios, India
Hak-Jin, Kim. Kenneth, A. Sudduth and John, W.Hummel. 2009. Soil macronutrient sensing for precision agriculture, J. Environ. Monit., 11: 1810-1824.
Heinrich, Ulrike. Moore, Carolyn E. Tronnier, Hagen. and Stahl, Wilhelm. 2011. "Green Tea Polyphenols Provide Photoprotection, Increase Microcirculation, and Modulate Skin Properties of Women". J. Nutr. 141 (6): 1202â€“1208. doi:10.3945/jn.110.136465. PMID 21525260.
Hergert, G.W. Pan, W.L. Huggins, D.R. Grove, J.H. and Peck, T.R. 1997. In The State of Site-Specific Management for Agriculture, ed. Piece, F.J. and Sadler, E.J., ASA-CSSA-SSSA,Madison, WI, PP. 283-300.
Jackson, M. L. 1995. In: Soil Chemical Analysis, Advanced Course .Prentice Hall (India), New Delhi.
Kaiser, J. 2001. The other global pollutant: nitrogen proves tough to curb. Science, 294: 1268-1269.
Korte, G. Dreiseitel, A. Schreier, P. Oehme, A. Locher, S. Geiger, S. Heilmann, J. and Sand, P.G.2010. "Tea catechins'affinity for human cannabinoid receptors". Phytomedicine 17 (1): 19â€“22. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2009.10.001. PMID 19897346. Retrieved 21 June 2012.
Kotoky, R. Nath, S.C. and Kalita, S. 2013. Variation of Metal Contents in Tea Plants Around oil Instalation, Assam, International Journal of Scientific Research, 2(3):189-191.
Marschner, H. 1995. Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants, Academic Press, London, UK.
Mary Lou, Heiss. And Robert J, Heiss. 2011. The Story of Tea: A Cultural History and Drinking Guide. Random House. p. 31. ISBN 978-1-60774-172-5. "By the time of the Shang dynasty (1766â€“1050 BC), tea was being consumed in Yunnan Province for its medicinal properties"
Mondal, T.K. 2007. "Tea". In Pua, E.C.; Davey, M.R. Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry. 60: Transgenic Crops V. Berlin: Springer. pp. 519â€“520. ISBN 3-540-49160-0
Muhr. G.R., Datta, N.P., Sankarasubramoney, H., Dever, F., Laley, V.K. and Donahue, R.L. 1965. Critical test values for available N,P nad K in different soils.Soil Testing in India. 2nd edn. U.S.Agency for International Developmen, New Delhi :120
Mukoyama, A. Ushijima H, Nishimura S, Koike H, Toda M, Hara Y, Shimamura T: Inhibition of rotavirus and enterovirus infections by tea extracts. Jpn J Med Sci Biol 1991, 44:181â€“186.
Nobre, A.C. Rao, A. Owen, G. N. 2008. "L-theanine, a natural constituent in tea, and its effect on mental state". Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition. 17 Suppl 1: 167â€“8. PMID 18296328.
Page, T. Haygarth, P.M. Beven, K.J. Jones, A. Butler, T. Keeler,C. Freer, J. Owens, P.N. and Wood, G.A. 2005. The spatial variability of soil phosphorus GA in relation to topographic indices and important source areas: samples to assess the risks to water quality J.Environ. Qual, 34 : 2263-2277.
Penelope, Ody. 2000. Complete Guide to Medicinal Herbs. New York, NY: Dorling Kindersley Publishing. p. 48. ISBN 0-7894-6785-2.
Qu, M. Li, W. and Zhang, C. 2014. Country-Scale Spatial Variability of Macronutrient Availability Ratios in Paddy Soils, Applied and Environmental Soil Science, 3:1-10.
Ruffo, M.L. Bollero, G.A. Hoeft, R.G. and Bullock, D.G. 2005. Spatial variability of the Illinois soil nitrogen test: Implications for soil sampling, Agron. J. 97: 1485-1492.
Sharpley, A. 1995. Identifying sites vulnerable to phosphorus loss in agricultural runoff, Journal of Environmental Quality, 24(5):947-951.
Singh, R.P. and Mishra, S.K. 2012. Available macronutrients (N,P and K) in the soils of Chiraigaon block of District Varanchi (U.P) in relation to soil characteristics. Indian J.Sci. Res. 3 (1) : 97-100.
Takabayashi, F. Harada, N. Yamada, M. Murohisa, B. Oguni, I. 2004. Inhibitory effect of green tea catechins in combination with sucralfate onHelicobacter pylori infection in Mongolian gerbils. J Gastroenterol , 39:61â€“63.
Toda M, Okubo S, Ohnishi R, Shimamura T.. 1989 Antibacterial and bactericidal activities of Japanese green tea. Nippon Saikingaku Zasshi, 44:669â€“672.
Tomata Y, Kakizaki, M. and Nakaya, N. and Tsuji, I. 2012. "Green tea consumption and the risk of incident functional disability in elderly Japanese: the Ohsaki Cohort 2006 Study". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 95 (3): 732â€“9. doi:10.3945/ajcn.111.023200. PMC 3278248. PMID 22277550.
Vadas, P.A. Kleinman, P.J.A. and Sharpley, J. 2004. J. Environ. Qual, 33 : 2749-756.
Walkley, A.and Black, C.A. 1974. Critical examination of rapid method of determining organic carbon in soil, Soil Sc. 63:251-164.
White, R.E. 1987. In: Introduction to the Principles and Practice of Soil Science. English Language Book Society/Blackwell Scientific Publication. London.
Yama ,T.S. Shaha, S. and Hamilton-Millera JMT. 1997. Microbiological activity of whole and fractionated crude extracts of tea (Camellia sinensis ), and of tea components. FEMS Microbiol Lett , 152:169â€“174.